Flashcards in B3 - Living And Growing Deck (65):
Name the structure of a animal cell
-Nucleus (contains DNA in the form of chromosomes)
-Cell Membrane (holds the cell together and controls what is entering and exiting)
-Ribosomes (where proteins are synthesised)
-Cytoplasm (where most chemical reactions happen)
-Mitochondria (respiration takes place and where energy is produced)
Name the structure of a plant cell
-Nucleus (has the DNA)
-Cytoplasm (chemical reactions happen)
-Cell wall (supports the cell)
-Vacuole (contains the cell sap)
-Cell membrane (hold the cell together and controls what enters and exits)
-Chloroplast (where she photosynthesis happens)
What is the structure of a bacteria cell?
-Cell membrane (holds it together and controls what is entering and exiting)
-Cell wall (supports the cell)
-Cytoplasm (where chemical reactions happen)
-Bacterial (single strand of DNA moving freely)
What are chromosomes?
Long molecules of coiled up DNA
What is a double helix?
Two of the strands make up groups called nucleotides
What are the four bases? (Molecules which the nucleotides contain)
A, T, C, G
(All Trees Can Grow)
What bases can pair up with which?
A and T
C and G
What are genes?
Short sections of DNA
Who made the first model of DNA?
Watson and Crick
How does DNA replicate itself?
1)Molecules of DNA unzip
2)Bases join up with the other bases on the nucleotides
3)Cross links are formed to make another DNA strand
How are proteins made?
They are made by reading the code of the DNA and then making amino acids which attach together to make proteins
Summarise protein synthesis
2)mRNA carries the code from the nucleus to the ribosomes
3)In the ribosomes 6 bases are chosen
4)The 6 bases make two amino acids
5)The amino acids are put together to make proteins
What are the four main functions of a protein?
1)Enzymes (act as biological catalysts)
2)Carrier molecules (transports smaller molecules like haemoglobin)
3)Hormones (carry messages around the body)
4)Structural proteins (strengthens things like tissue)
What are enzymes used for?
They are used as biological catalysts, which speed up a reaction without being used up or changing the reaction
How do enzymes do their job?
In an enzyme they have an active sight that is the same shape as the substrate (molecule being split)
When the substrate fits in and is released there is two products and an unchanged enzyme
What conditions do enzymes like?
Warm because if it is too hot then they will denature and if it is too cold they will not work
What pH do enzymes like?
Neutral as if it is too high or low then it will interfere with the bonds
What is Q(10)?
This is the value that shows how much the rate changes when the temperature is raised by 10 degrees
What is the equation for Q(10)?
Q(10) = rate at higher temperature / rate at lower temperature
What are gene mutations?
This is the change in DNA base sequences
How do you get mutations with radiation?
If a cell is hit with a high dose of ionising radiation this can cause mutations
What are some of the advantages with being multicellular?
-Cell differentiation (lot of things being done)
What is mitosis?
Mitosis is when a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
What does mitosis do?
This replace body cells like tissue
What happens in mitosis?
1)The DNA goes into double armed chromosomes
2)They line up in the middle of the cell
3)Cell fibres pull them apart to opposite ends
4)Cytoplasms divide getting two new cells exactly the same
What is meiosis?
Meiosis is a cell division that creates gametes
What is a diploid cell?
Two copies of each chromosome in its nucleus
What happens in meiosis?
1)DNA replicates into double armed chromosomes
2)They arrange into pairs
3)They split up to opposite poles to make two new cells
4)In both the cells spindles pull them apart to form four new cells
How are diploid zygotes made?
When two gamete add together
How are sperm cells adapted?
-Tails (swim to the egg)
-Lots of mitochondria (energy)
What do stem cells do?
They can turn into different types of cell by differentiation (undifferentiated cell to differentiated cell)
What are the different ways of measuring growth?
What are the five main phases of growth?
What is growth like over your life?
1)Rapid growth after birth
2)Growth stops at adulthood
What parts of the body grow faster?
-baby in the womb
What is aerobic respiration?
This is respiration which happens when there is plenty of oxygen
What is anaerobic respiration?
Respiration that doesn't use oxygen at all
What is the word and symbol equation of aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen > carbon dioxide + water
C(6)H(12)O(6) + 6O(2) > 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose > lactic acid
What is respiratory quotient (RQ)?
This is telling somebody if they are repairing anaerobically or aerobically
What is the equation for respiration quotient (RQ)?
RQ = amount of CO(2) produced / amount of O(2) used
What is plasma?
This is a bit of liquid blood that carries lots of different things
What are seven things that plasma transports?
1)red and white blood cells
3)glucose and amino acids
Why are red blood cells good at their job?
-Biconcave shape (larger surface area to absorb and release oxygen)
-Flexible (able to go through the capillaries)
What are the three different types of blood vessel?
Arteries (carries blood away from the heart)
Capillaries (exchange of materials at the tissue)
Veins (carries blood to the heart)
What are arteries like?
-pumps blood at high pressure
-Walls are strong and elasticity
-small lumen (space)
What are capillaries like?
-close to all the cells in the body
-permeable walls let substances diffuse in and out
What are veins like?
-large lumen (space)
-valves to keep blood in correct direction
What is the double circulatory system?
The first system connects to the heart to the lungs and then the deoxygenated blood returns to heart.
The rest of the blood is pumped to the rest of the body then the deoxygenated blood goes back to the hearth
What labels go on the right side of the heart?
What labels go on the left side of the heart?
Why do people selective breed?
How do you selective breed?
They breed two of the animals with the best characteristics
What is the main drawback with selective breeding?
A reduction in the gene pool
What is genetic engineering?
This is to move genes from one organism to another
What are the important stages in genetic engineering?
1)Gene with the favourable characteristic is selected
2)This then cut from the DNA using enzymes
3)The useful gene is inserted into another organism
4)The organism then replicates the gene making a lot of it
What is gene therapy?
This is altering a persons genes to try and cure a genetic disorder
What are the two types of gene therapy?
1)This is changing the genes in body cells
2)This is changing the genes in the gametes
What is cloning?
Cloning is done by transferring the cell nucleus
What are clones?
Clones are genetically identical organisms
What are the stages of cloning?
1)The the nucleus is removed from an adult body cell and an egg cell
2)The nucleus from the adult body cell is put into the egg cell
3)The new embryo is gave an electric shock
4)This is then implanted into surrogate mother
What are some of the benefits of cloning?
-You can mass produce animals with desirable characteristics
-Human embryos could be produced by cloning adult body cells
What are the risks of cloning?
-The animals may not be as healthy as normal Ines
-There can be consequences that have not been found yet
What are the stages of cloning plants?
1)Get cuttings from the plants with a new bud on
2)These are kept in noisy conditions until they are ready