Flashcards in B2 - Understanding Our Enviroment Deck (55):
What does classification do?
Organises living organisms into groups
What are natural classification systems?
These are based on evolutionary relationships and similarities between organsisms
What is artificial classification systems?
These are based on appearance rather than genes
What are living things divided into?
What are kingdoms sub divided into?
Why may classification systems change over time?
Newly discovered species
How can evolutionary relationships be shown?
What are species?
A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
What is asexual reproduction?
Where organisms reproduce by making a copy of itself
What is a hybrid?
When you interbreed a male from one species and a female from another
What does the binomial system show?
Gives species a two part name:
1) Genus that they belong to
What do pyramids of biomass show?
This shows the mass of living things
What shape are biomass pyramids?
Pyramids all the time because biomass is always lost
What do pyramids of numbers show?
It shows the number of organisms at the stage of the food chain
What shape are the pyramids of numbers?
These are many different shapes because one at the bottom of the food chain could feed many of the others
Where is energy lost in a food chain?
What is an energy flow diagram?
This shows the amount of energy available to the next level
What is the equation for efficiency?
Efficiency = energy available to the next level / energy that was available to the previous level
What is interspecific competition?
The competition of other species
What is intraspecific competition?
Competition between the same species
What is a ecological niche?
How a species fits into the ecosystem
What is the cycle of prey and predators?
More prey more predators but an increase in predators means a decrease in prey
What is a parasite?
They live off a host and survive by taking and not giving back
What is mutualism?
The relationship where both organisms benefit
What do adaptations do?
Help an organism survive
What is a specialist?
An organism which is highly adapted to a specific habitat
What are generalists?
Organisms which are adapted so they survive in a range of different habitats
Give an example of a biochemical adaptation in extremely cold conditions
They have antifreeze proteins that interfere with the formation of ice stopping cells being damaged
What is an example of a biochemical adaptation in extremely hot conditions?
They have extremophile bacteria that gives enzymes a much higher optimum temperature so they don't denature
What are behavioural adaptations?
Things that they do which can help them
What are anatomical adaptations?
Features or body structures that help
What are some anatomical adaptations with animals in cold environments?
-thick coat or blubber
-compact body shape
-small surface area to volume ration
Explain counter current heat exchange systems in penguins
Arteries carries heat to the feet but then veins carry cold blood back into the body. The blood in the veins is heated by the heat transferred from the arteries. This keeps the blood from the feet and uses that to heat the body
What are behavioural adaptations for animals in cold environments?
-Hibernate during the winter to save energy
-Huddle to keep warmth
What are behavioural adaptations for animals in hot environments?
-Go into places which have shade
-Being more active during the night
What are anatomical adaptations with animals in hot environments?
-Large surface area to volume ratio
-Large and thin ears
-Thin fur and less blubber
What are some adaptations of plants in dry environments?
-Small surface area to volume ratio
-Spines instead of leaves
-Store water in there stems
What are some of the adaptations of animals in dry environments?
-No sweat glands
Who came up with the theory about evolution?
What is speciation?
This is the development of new species
What is the theory of natural selection?
More successful competitors would be more likely to survive (survival of the fittest)
What was Lamarck's theory?
He argued that if certain characteristics are used then they will be developed
Summarise the carbon cycle
There is only photosynthesis going down and then CO(2) is put into the air by burning, respiration, decay
How is carbon recycled in the sea?
Shells are made out of carbonates and when these die they will form limestone and releases CO(2)
What are the four different types of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle?
-Decomposers (turn urea into ammonia)
-Nitrifying Bacteria (ammonia into nitrates)
-Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria (turns atmospheric (N(2)) into nitrogen compounds
-Denitrifying Bacteria (turns nitrates into atmospheric (N(2))
What is nitrogen needed for?
These are needed for making proteins for growth
Summarise the nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen is in the soil and roots as well as in lightning. Then this is but back in the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria
What is global warming?
When fossil fuels are burnt to release carbon dioxide and this leads to the atmospheric temperature to increase
What is acid rain?
When sulphur dioxide reacts with water making sulphuric acid and when it rains it is acidic
What is ozone depletion?
When CFCs are released from deodorants and fridges this reacts with the ozone making it into oxygen and this lets lots of harmful rays in
What can be used to show pollution?
Indicator species, which either go to polluted or non polluted places so you can see what they are
How can species become extinct?
-Number of habitats decrease
-Number of induviduals
What do conservation programs look at?
-Availability of habitats
How will conservation programs benefit humans?
-Protecting the food supply
-Minimal damage to the food chain
-Providing future medicines