B2 - Understanding Our Enviroment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B2 - Understanding Our Enviroment Deck (55):
1

What does classification do?

Organises living organisms into groups

2

What are natural classification systems?

These are based on evolutionary relationships and similarities between organsisms

3

What is artificial classification systems?

These are based on appearance rather than genes

4

What are living things divided into?

Kingdoms

5

What are kingdoms sub divided into?

Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

6

Why may classification systems change over time?

Newly discovered species

7

How can evolutionary relationships be shown?

Evolutionary trees

8

What are species?

A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring

9

What is asexual reproduction?

Where organisms reproduce by making a copy of itself

10

What is a hybrid?

When you interbreed a male from one species and a female from another

11

What does the binomial system show?

Gives species a two part name:
1) Genus that they belong to
2)Species

E.g.)Homo Sapiens

12

What do pyramids of biomass show?

This shows the mass of living things

13

What shape are biomass pyramids?

Pyramids all the time because biomass is always lost

14

What do pyramids of numbers show?

It shows the number of organisms at the stage of the food chain

15

What shape are the pyramids of numbers?

These are many different shapes because one at the bottom of the food chain could feed many of the others

16

Where is energy lost in a food chain?

-respiration
-heat loss
-waste materials

17

What is an energy flow diagram?

This shows the amount of energy available to the next level

18

What is the equation for efficiency?

Efficiency = energy available to the next level / energy that was available to the previous level

19

What is interspecific competition?

The competition of other species

20

What is intraspecific competition?

Competition between the same species

21

What is a ecological niche?

How a species fits into the ecosystem

22

What is the cycle of prey and predators?

More prey more predators but an increase in predators means a decrease in prey

23

What is a parasite?

They live off a host and survive by taking and not giving back

24

What is mutualism?

The relationship where both organisms benefit

25

What do adaptations do?

Help an organism survive

26

What is a specialist?

An organism which is highly adapted to a specific habitat

27

What are generalists?

Organisms which are adapted so they survive in a range of different habitats

28

Give an example of a biochemical adaptation in extremely cold conditions

They have antifreeze proteins that interfere with the formation of ice stopping cells being damaged

29

What is an example of a biochemical adaptation in extremely hot conditions?

They have extremophile bacteria that gives enzymes a much higher optimum temperature so they don't denature

30

What are behavioural adaptations?

Things that they do which can help them

31

What are anatomical adaptations?

Features or body structures that help

32

What are some anatomical adaptations with animals in cold environments?

-thick coat or blubber
-compact body shape
-small surface area to volume ration

33

Explain counter current heat exchange systems in penguins

Arteries carries heat to the feet but then veins carry cold blood back into the body. The blood in the veins is heated by the heat transferred from the arteries. This keeps the blood from the feet and uses that to heat the body

34

What are behavioural adaptations for animals in cold environments?

-Hibernate during the winter to save energy
-Huddle to keep warmth

35

What are behavioural adaptations for animals in hot environments?

-Go into places which have shade
-Being more active during the night

36

What are anatomical adaptations with animals in hot environments?

-Large surface area to volume ratio
-Large and thin ears
-Thin fur and less blubber

37

What are some adaptations of plants in dry environments?

-Small surface area to volume ratio
-Spines instead of leaves
-Store water in there stems

38

What are some of the adaptations of animals in dry environments?

-No sweat glands
-Specialist kidneys

39

Who came up with the theory about evolution?

Charles Darwin

40

What is speciation?

This is the development of new species

41

What is the theory of natural selection?

More successful competitors would be more likely to survive (survival of the fittest)

42

What was Lamarck's theory?

He argued that if certain characteristics are used then they will be developed

43

Summarise the carbon cycle

There is only photosynthesis going down and then CO(2) is put into the air by burning, respiration, decay

44

How is carbon recycled in the sea?

Shells are made out of carbonates and when these die they will form limestone and releases CO(2)

45

What are the four different types of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle?

-Decomposers (turn urea into ammonia)
-Nitrifying Bacteria (ammonia into nitrates)
-Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria (turns atmospheric (N(2)) into nitrogen compounds
-Denitrifying Bacteria (turns nitrates into atmospheric (N(2))

46

What is nitrogen needed for?

These are needed for making proteins for growth

47

Summarise the nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen is in the soil and roots as well as in lightning. Then this is but back in the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria

48

What is global warming?

When fossil fuels are burnt to release carbon dioxide and this leads to the atmospheric temperature to increase

49

What is acid rain?

When sulphur dioxide reacts with water making sulphuric acid and when it rains it is acidic

50

What is ozone depletion?

When CFCs are released from deodorants and fridges this reacts with the ozone making it into oxygen and this lets lots of harmful rays in

51

What can be used to show pollution?

Indicator species, which either go to polluted or non polluted places so you can see what they are

52

How can species become extinct?

-Number of habitats decrease
-Genetic variation
-Number of induviduals

53

What do conservation programs look at?

-Availability of habitats
-Genetic variation
-Population
-Interaction

54

How will conservation programs benefit humans?

-Protecting the food supply
-Minimal damage to the food chain
-Providing future medicines

55

What is sustainable development?

Sustainable development means providing the needs of today's increase in population without harming the environment