How does a large surface area compared to volume help desert animals to keep cool?
It helps them lose more body heat which prevents them from overheating
How are desert animals efficient with water?
They produce concentrated urine and make very little sweat
How are desert animals good in hot conditions?
They have very thin layers of body fat and a thin coat to help them lose body heat. E.g. camels keep most of their body fat in their humps
How are desert animals camouflaged?
A sandy colour gives them a good camouflage to avoid predators
How does a small surface area compared to volume help an arctic animal?
It reduces heat loss
How do arctic animals keep well insulated?
They have a thick layer of blubber for insulation, which also acts as an energy store when food is scarce. They also have thick hairy coats to keep body heat in which are also greasy to shed water (preventing cooling due to evaporation)
How do spines instead of leaves help desert plants to lose less water?
plants lose water vapour from the surface of their leaves. Cacti have spines instead of leaves in order to prevent this from happening
How do desert plants reduce water loss?
They have a small surface area compared to volume
How do desert plants reduce water loss through storage?
They have water storage tissues and often a thick stem to store water in as well
How are the roots of desert plants adapted to maximise water absorption?
Some cacti have shallow but extensive roots to absorb water quickly over a large area. others have deep roots to access underground water
How are some plants and animals adapted to deter predators?
- Armour (e.g. roses have thorns, cacti have sharp spines and tortoises have shells)
- Poisons (e.g. bees and poison ivy)
- Warning colours (e.g. wasps)
What is the name given to microorganisms adapted to live in extreme conditions?
What are extremophiles adapted to survive in?
Hot volcanic vents, very salty lakes, high pressure on the sea bed etc
What do plants compete with each other for?
Light, space, water and nutrients
What do animals compete with each other for?
Food, mates and territory
What do organisms need in order to survive and reproduce?
Materials from their surroundings and environment
What are adaptions?
Features which enable microorganisms to survive in the conditions in which they normally live
What do changes in environment affect?
Population size and population distribution
What are the living factors which cause environmental changes?
Infectious disease, change in the number of predators, number of prey, availability of food sources, change in the number/types of competitors
What are the non-living factors which cause environmental changes?
Change in the average temperature, change in the average rainfall, change in the level of air/water pollution
What can lichen be used to indicate?
Air pollution, particularly the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere
What can mayfly larvae and other invertebrates be used to indicate?
Water pollution, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
What can satellites be used to measure?
Temperature of the sea surface and the amount of snow and ice cover
What can weather stations be used to measure?
How is rainfall measured?
Rain gauges, to find the average rainfall changes year on year
What can measure oxygen levels?
Dissolved oxygen meters, they measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water to observe the changing levels of water pollution
What non-living indicators can be used to measure environmental change?
Oxygen levels, temperature and rainfall