What is a correlation?
A correlation means a pattern, relationship or link between 2 factors. It does not mean that one thing is caused by the other.
What do we mean by health?
Health means a state of mental and physical well being as well as the absence of disease.
Name the top 3 killer diseases in the world
(clue: all three are non communcable meaning that you can't catch them)
The top 3 non -communicable killer diseases in the world are
- coronary heart disease
- COPD (chronic obstructive pulminary disease)
How do diet and exercise affect your risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
- Eating too much will make you obese. This increases the risk of heart disease.
- Exercise increases muscle mass and uses up excess energy. This reduces your risk of both obesity and heart diease.
- Exercise also reduces the amount of bad cholesterol in your blood. This reduces the buid up of fatty plaques in your coronary artery.
Why is it dangerous to smoke whist you are pregnant?
It is dangerous to smoke whist you are pregnant because it reduces the oxygen that gets to the baby through the placenta. This can lead to stillbirth or a sick or premature baby.
How do we treat cancer?
There are two main ways that we treat cancer:
- Radiotherapy where cancer cells are killed by doses of radiation.
- Chemotherapy where chemicals are used to either stop cancer cells dividing or make them self destruct.
Why do smokers develop a cough?
Smokers cough is caused by the smoke anaesthetising the cilia which move mucous out of the lungs. This stops them moving which allows dirt, dust and microbes into the lungs and causes irritation.
What is the risk of depression in healthy and chronically ill individuals?
The risk of getting depression is generally 5% - 25% .
However, those with chronic illnesses face a much higher risk -- between 25% and 33%.
The risk increases with the severity of the illness and the level of life disruption it causes.
Carbon monoxide is a chemical found in tobacco smoke. What does it do that is harmful?
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas which takes up space in a red blood cell where oxygen is usually carried. This means that a smoker will be short of oxygen for respiration and have little energy.
What problems do individuals with a faulty immune system (such as people with Lupus or AIDS) have ?
Defects in the immune system mean that an individual is more likely to catch an infectious or communicable disease.
How can drinking alcohol when pregnant affect the baby?
Drinking alcohol when pregnant can affect the baby by increasing the risk of stillbirth, miscarriage, premature birth and low birthweight. The developing baby can have brain damage known as foetal alcohol syndrome and damage to its developing face and body.
Give 4 risk factors for cancers.
The risk of some cancers is increased if you
- have certain genes.
- are exposed to carcinogens such as tar in tobacco or asbestos.
- are exposed to ionising radiation rays such as UV or X rays.
- are exposed to certain microbes such as HPV.
Why does ionising radiation increase the risk of developing cancer?
Ionising radiation increases the risk of developing cancer by mutating the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
What causes allergies?
An allergy is a reaction the body has to a particular food or substance.
Immune reactions initially caused by a pathogen can trigger allergies such as skin rashes and asthma.
What is the difference between an infectious and a communicable disease?
An infectious disease is a disease caused by a microbe which may or may not be communicable. e.g. tetanus is not infectious because although it is caused by a bacteria it is caught from the environment. You cannot give it to someone else. A communicable diseases are always contageous. e.g. chicken pox.
What is cirrhosis of the liver?
Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease where liver tissue turns to scar tissue because of the toxins released when the liver breaks down alcohol.
Which 3 non communicable diseases can obesity increase the risk of developing?
Obesity increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer.
What is type 2 diabetes and what is it caused by?
Type 2 is caused by eating too much sugar in your diet. In type 2 diabetes either your insulin producing cells in the pancreas stop working or your cells become resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone which takes sugars out of the blood stream and keep the level steady. Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by eating a low sugar diet and exercising.
Name some risk factors for disease.
Some risk factors for disease include;
- lack of exercise
- drinking too much alcohol
- taking street drugs
- UV rays
Name some lifestyle factors that can affect your health.
Lifestyle factors include
- what you eat
- whether you drink sugary drinks or alcohol
- whether you smoke
- where in the world you live
- how many children you have
- whether you have access to clean water
Can viruses give you cancer?
Yes! For example HPV is a family of viruses which are the main causes of cervical cancer. Girls have a vaccine to prevent this cancer developing in year 8. As HPV can also cause cancers of the male and female genitals, mouth and throat, it is very important to have this vaccine to protect yourself and your partner.
Which 3 non communicable diseases can smoking increase the risk of developing?
Smoking can increase the risk of developing cancer, strokes and heart disease.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of drinking alcohol.
Alcohol is a popular legal drug to share in social situations because it makes people feel relaxed and happy. The disadvantages are that 1. it is addictive 2. it makes thought processes, nervous reactions and reflexes slower 3. it reduces inhibitions so you may make poor decisions 4. high doses of alcohol are poisonous and can lead to unconciousness, coma and death.
Tar is a chemical found in tobacco smoke. What does it do that is harmful?
Tar is a carcinogen which increases your risk of developing cancer.
What is the difference between a benign and a malignant tumour?
Benign tumours are growths of abnormal cells which are contained in one area, usually within a membrane. They do not invade other parts of the body.
Malignant tumour cells are cancers. They invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body in the blood where they form secondary tumours
What makes us ill?
- an infection
- developing a non communicable diseases
- because your body is damaged during your lifetime
- there was an error whilst your body was being built
- a genetic disease (an illness coded in your DNA)
What do we mean by depression?
Depression is a real illness that impacts the brain. It affects your thoughts, your emotions, your behaviors and your overall physical health. It affects people with chronic illnesses at a higher rate than healthy people.
Can you explain and name a chronic illness?
A chronic illness is a condition that lasts for a very long time and usually cannot be cured completely.
Examples of chronic illnesses include diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, kidney disease, HIV/AIDS, lupus, and multiple sclerosis.
Nicotine is a chemical found in tobacco smoke. What does it do that is harmful?
Nicotine is addictive. It also raises blood pressure so that it increases the risk of stroke or heart disease.
What is a tumour?
A tumour is a ball of cells which are dividing out of control.