What is a communicable disease?
A communicable disease is a disease that can be spread from one person to another.
What is a pathogen?
A pathogen is a microorganism that causes infectious disease.
Name the four types of pathogens.
The four types of pathogen are:
Describe three ways in which pathogens can be spread.
Pathogens can be spread by:
- Direct contact (including skin, blood and by vectors e.g. insects)
- By water/food
- By droplets (including sneezing, coughing)
Explain how bacteria make us feel ill.
Bacteria reproduce rapidly inside the body and produce toxins that damage tissue.
Explain how viruses make us feel ill.
Viruses live and reproduce inside cells, causing cell damage.
What type of pathogen causes measles.
Measles is caused by a virus.
Describe 2 symptoms of the measles.
Two symptoms of the measles are:
- Red skin rash
Describe how the measles is spread between people.
The measles virus is spread by the inhalation of droplets from sneezes and coughs.
What type of pathogen causes HIV?
HIV is caused by a virus.
Describe how HIV is spread.
HIV is spread by sexual contact or exchange of bodily fluids eg blood.
What type of pathogen causes Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)?
Tobacco Mosaid Virus is caused by a virus.
Describe the symptoms of Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus causes discoloured leaves.
Explain why Tobacco Mosaic Virus affects the growth of plants.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus damages the chloroplasts in the leaves. This means that the plant is unable to absorb sunlight and can therefore not photosynthesis and produce glucose for growth.
What type of pathogen causes Salmonella?
Salmonella is caused by bacteria.
Describe how Salmonella is spread.
Salmonella is spread by eating contaminated food and by preparing food in unhygeinic conditions.
Describe the symptoms of salmonella.
The symptoms of salmonella are:
- Abdominal cramps
What type of pathogen causes Gonorrhoea?
Gonorrhoea is caused by bacteria.
Describe how gonorrhoea is spread.
Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease which is spread by having unprotected sex.
Describe the symptoms of Gonorrhoea.
The symptoms of Gonnorhoea are:
- thick yellow discharge from vagina / penis
- pain urinating
Describe how Gonnorhoea can be treated.
Gonnorhoea can be treated by using antibiotics (eg penicillin).
Describe how Gonnorhoea can be prevented.
Gonnorhoea can be prevented by using a barrier method of contraception eg a condom.
What type of pathogen causes Rose Black Spot Disease?
Rose Black Spot Disease is caused by a fungus.
Describe the symptoms of Rose Black Spot Disease.
Rose black spot disease causes purple or black spots on leaves which often turn yellow and drop off early.
Describe and explain the effect of Rose black spot on the growth of plants.
Rose black spot causes stunted growth because photosynthesis is reduced.
Describe how Rose black spot is spread.
Rose black spot is spread in the environment by wind or water.
Describe how Rose black spot can be treated.
Rose black spot can be treated by:
- Using fungicides
- Removing or destroying the affected leaves
What type of pathogen causes Malaria.
Malaria is caused by protists.
Describe how the spread of malaria can be controlled.
The spread of malaria can be controlled by:
- Preventing mosquitos from breeding
- Using mosquito nets to avoid being bitte,
Describe & explain four non-specific defence systems of the human body.
Four non-specific defence systems of the human body are:
- Skin - acts as a barrier to prevent the entry of pathogens.
- Nose - lined with hair and mucus to trap pathogens
- Trachea & Bronchi - lined with cilia to trap pathogens
- Stomach - contains acid to kill pathogens