B3 organisation and the digestive system Flashcards Preview

biology > B3 organisation and the digestive system > Flashcards

Flashcards in B3 organisation and the digestive system Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

tissue definition

A

group of cells with similar structure and function

2
Q

organ definition

A

collection of different tissues performing a common function

3
Q

organ system definition

A

groups of organs that perform specific functions in the body

4
Q

role of digestive system in mammals

A

digest and absorb food

5
Q

testing for sugar

A

Benedict’s solution
hot water bath
blue -> brick red

6
Q

starch test

A

iodine SOLUTION

yellow/orange/red to blue black

7
Q

lipid test

A

emulsion test

clear to cloudy/ milky white

8
Q

protein test

A

biuret reagent

blue to purple

9
Q

what do catalysts do

A

increase rate of chemical reactions without changing chemically themselves

10
Q

enzyme action

A

biological catalysts
catalyse specific reactions in living organisms
(due to shape of their active site)
lock and key theory
active site of enzyme must be complementary to the substrate

11
Q

what is metabolism

A

sum of all the reactions in a cell or body

12
Q

factors of enzyme activity

A

temperature and pH

13
Q

effect of high temp on active site

A

active site denatures, changing the shape so it no longer matches the substrate molecule (canot bind)

14
Q

effect of pH on active site

A

can affect shape of active site and make it work efficiently or not at all

15
Q

what is digestion

A

breakdown large insoluble molecules ->soluble substances
absorbed into the blood across the wall of small intestine

16
Q

where are digestive enzymes produced

A

by specialised cells in glands in the lining of the digestive system

17
Q

breakdown of carbs

A

made from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
catalyst- amylase

into simple sugars

18
Q

breakdown of proteins

A

protease

into amino acids

19
Q

breakdown of lipids

A

lipase

into fatty acids and glycerol

20
Q

stomach pH

A

acidic conditions
hydrochloric acid produced
maintains low pH

21
Q

small intestine pH

A

enzymes made in pancreas work best in alkaline conditions

higher pH

22
Q

bile

A

produced by liver
stored in gall bladder
released through bile duct
neutralises acid and emulsifies fats

23
Q

food pathway digestive system

A
mouth
esophagus
stomach
small then large intestine
rectum 
anus
24
Q

what is an enzyme

A

chemical which catalyses reactions in living organisms

25
Q

amylase production

A

salivary glands
pancreas
small intestine

26
Q

protease production

A

stomach (pepsin)
pancreas
small itestine

27
Q

lipase production

A

pancreas
small intestine

28
Q

updated lock and key theory

A

induced fit model
in order for an enzyme to catalyse a reaction, the enzymes active site changes shape slightly as it binds to the substrate

29
Q

balanced diet

A

includes appropriate proportions of all the different biological molecules
including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre, and water

30
Q

factors affecting calorie intake

A

activity level
age
height
gender
pregnancy

31
Q

biological molecules

A

bm are molecules found in living organisms, produced by cells

32
Q

nutrients

A

substances needed for growth, repair and metabolism