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Flashcards in B6.3 (1) Deck (38)
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what are monoclonal antibodies?

identical antibodies that have been produced from the same hybridomas cell (fused white blood cell + cancer cell) -



how are monoclonal antibodies produced?

- genetically modifies mice are injected with the required antigen

- mice produce immune response (antibodies to specific antigen)

- antibody-producing b-cells/ lymphocytes are collected

- then fused with cancerous cells

- hybridoma cell reproduces rapidly + formed clones

- clones produce required antibody (proteins are called monoclonal antibodies)


monoclonal antibodies:

- they are highly ......
- they bind to ........ of ....... .......

- all highly specific (designed to target only one type of cell)
- bind to antigens of target cell


state 3 ways monoclonal antibodies can be used

- detecting antigens in pregnancy testing

- detection of diseases (like prostate cancer)

- treating diseases (targeting cancer cells)


define disease

a condition caused by any part of the body not functioning properly


what is the relationship between good health and disease?

good health is being free of disease


define a pathogen

a disease-causing organism


state the difference between communicable and non-communicable diseases (and give an example of each one)

communicable - can be spread (ie. chickenpox)

non-communicable - cannot be spread (cancer, asthma, scurvy, strokes)
-> either developed by themselves or are inherited


what are communicable diseases transmitted by?



describe the interaction between HIV and tuberculosis

- HIV lowers the immune system
- so is easier for pathogens to cause disease
- therefore, patients often develop TB as they are more susceptible to infectious diseases


describe the interaction between HPV and cervical cancer
(state what HPV is)

HPV is a sexually transmitted disease

- HPV virus in cells can trigger cancer/cell changes in the cervix


how are communicable diseases spread between animals? (4)

- cut in the skin (insect bites)
- contaminated water/food
- respiratory system (droplets)
- reproductive system (having sex)


how are communicable diseases spread between plants?

- vectors (insects)
- contaminated soil
- sap of infected to healthy plant
- wind (fugal spores)


how does viral replication work?

1) virus attacks cell
2) virus inserts genes
3) virus tells nucleus to copy genes
4) new virus made
5) cell bursts, new virus realised + cell is destroyed


what causes symptoms such as rashes, fevers and sores?

toxins produced by pathogens when reproducing


how do viruses cause disease?

1) attacks cell + inserts genes
2) uses cell to replicate its genes/DNA
3) new viruses are made
4) cell bursts + new virus is released


why do scientists monitor disease?

- to check if it is getting worse
- to monitor the prevalance (how common where and when)


what is AIDS?

a name for a group of diseases which cause a lowered immunity within the body


how do scientists monitor a disease outbreak?

study the 'incidence' of a disease
- rate in which new cases occur in a population over a period of time


difference between scientists monitoring non-communicable and communicable diseases?

- studying non-communicable over a long period of time
- can be used to see effectiveness of a disease treatement/ prevention technique


how can the spread of communicable diseases be prevented in humans? (8)

- cover mouth when coughing/sneezing
- do not touch infected ppl
- use condoms in sex (prevent STIs)
- do not share needles
- wash hands before eating
- cook food properly
- drink clean water
- protect from animal bites (insect repellant)


what is an incubation period?
(and what happens during it)

time delay between harmful organisms entering body and you feeling unwell

- pathogens reproduce rapidly during it


why should you use insect repellant to protect from communicable diseases?

prevent diseases from insects acting as vectors


how can the spread of communicable diseases be prevented in plants? (4)

- burn diseased plant material
- chemical dips on farms
- spray plants with fungicides (prevent fungal infections)
- do not plant other plants in infected soil


what is the use of chemical dips in farms?

kills pathogens on footwear (prevent transfer from one plant to another)


how to prevent the spread of communicable diseases in animals - farm?

- treat animals with drugs (antibiotics)
- vaccinate them
- slaughter whole herd (if communicable)
- don't move livestock


why must a whole herd be slaughtered to prevent the spread of a communicable disease?

as they live very close together and farmers cannot risk others becoming infected


how are diseases detected?

- by the antigen on pathogen (after a test)
- or a change to the organisms' appearance
(ie. visual identification)


describe one common viral infection for the following:

a) animal
b) plants

a) HIV - invades white blood cells + reproduces inside cells

b) Tobacco Mosaic Virus
- hijacks plant cell + prevent chloroplasts from forming
- forms 'mosaic' pattern on leaves
- lowes quality + quantity of crop produced


describe one common bacterial infection for the following:

a) animal
b) plants

a) Salmonelle/E.coli
food poisoning

b) Crown Gall Disease
- enters through wound
- causes increase in growth hormones produced
- results in tumours (galls) at stem/roots