Flashcards in B6.3 (3) Deck (52)
what is the role of monoclonal antibodies in pregnancy testing?
- pregnant women produce hCG hormones after conception (in urine)
- role is to bind to antigens on the hCG hormone + cause a colour-change reaction
what is the role of monoclonal antibodies in detecting diseases (such as prostate cancer)?
- they can be developed to bind to specific cancerous antigens (such as ones for prostate cancer)
- and so can bind to them and act as a marker (can confirm presence)
- may have a fluorescent dye
- once tumour identified = treated + removed (even at early stage)
what is the role of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of diseases (like targetting cancer cells)?
- they can be developed to target specific cells
(only kill them/prevent from operating)
- can carry radioactive substances/drugs to cancer cells
what is the benefit of using monoclonal antibodies to treat cancers?
minimise damage to surrounding tissue and other cells (only cancer cells)
advantages of monoclonal antibodies?
- bind to specific cells only (healthy cells not affected)
- engineered to treat many diff conditions
- can easily produce a lot of them
disadvantages of monoclonal antibodies?
- difficult to attach them to drugs
- expensive to develop
- were produced from mice lymphocytes = often triggered immune response in humans
define a vaccine
- a solution which
- contains a small amount of weakened or dead versions of a pathogen which
- stimulates white blood cells to
- produce antibodies complimentary to the antigens
what does a vaccine force the immune system to do?
produce antibodies specific to that pathogen (by the lymphocytes)
what is immunity?
when lymphocyte cells produce enough antibodies fast enough to destroy pathogen before it causes disease
BUT PATHOGEN STILL ENTERS BODY
how do vaccines help in the long term?
upon the real infection, the body has some antibodies in the form of memory cells
(fight off disease faster and without becoming ill)
positives and negatives of vaccinations?
- eradicated many disease
- epidemics prevented through herd immunity
- childhood immunisations led to fewer children dying of infectious diseases
- not always effective with providing immunity
- can have severe allergic reactions
what are antibiotics?
medicines that kill bacterial pathogens inside the body
would one antibiotic kill all bacteria?
no, different antibiotics are effective against different types of bacteria
how do scientists identify the bacteria making you ill?
- doctors send blood sample to lab
- scientists grow bacteria in agar plates
- and treat it with different antibiotics
how do antibiotics affect bacteria?
- inhibit cell processes
- stop them from growing
(ie. stop building cell walls)
- which stops diffusion/protein synthesis
what is the problem with antibiotics?
overuse may lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (non-resistant bacteria are killed off)
explain the use of antiseptics in the prevention/treatment of disease
- kill or neutralise all types of pathogens
- do not damage human tissue (so good in surgeries)
can one antiseptic kill all microorganisms?
no, different antiseptics act on different microorganisms
difference between a disinfectant and antiseptic?
- disinfectant only applied to non-living surfaces (are harmful to human tissue)
- antiseptic do not damage human tissue
what are antivirals?
drugs that inhibit the function of viruses (usually by preventing them from replicating)
can antivirals kill viruses?
(and explain why)
no, not directly
- as viruses go into cells, and so antiviral drugs would have to kill body cells as well
how can antivirals treat viral diseases?
- blocking virus from entering a host cell
- preventing virus from releasing genetic material
- preventing virus from inserting genetic data into host cell's DNA
are most antiviral drugs specific?
yes, they are designed to act on one type of cell
what is the problem with antiviral drugs?
- hard to produce an effective antiviral
- as viruses mutate very fast
- and so would not be effective
what are antiseptics commonly used to do?
sterilise a wound to avoid infection + spread of disease
define a zone of inhibition
the area on an agar plate where bacteria cannot grow (as antibiotics kill it)
what does the zone of inhibition show?
the effectiveness of an antibiotic
how do you measure the zone of inhibition?
calculate the area of it (using πR²)
- ie. measure diameter (then divide by 2)
passive vs active immunity?
passive = not have to make own antibodies (ie. from mother's milk)
active = have to produce own antibody (ie. vaccinations)