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Flashcards in B6.3 (3) Deck (52)
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1

what is the role of monoclonal antibodies in pregnancy testing?

- pregnant women produce hCG hormones after conception (in urine)

- role is to bind to antigens on the hCG hormone + cause a colour-change reaction

2

what is the role of monoclonal antibodies in detecting diseases (such as prostate cancer)?

- they can be developed to bind to specific cancerous antigens (such as ones for prostate cancer)

- and so can bind to them and act as a marker (can confirm presence)

- may have a fluorescent dye

- once tumour identified = treated + removed (even at early stage)

3

what is the role of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of diseases (like targetting cancer cells)?

- they can be developed to target specific cells
(only kill them/prevent from operating)

- can carry radioactive substances/drugs to cancer cells

4

what is the benefit of using monoclonal antibodies to treat cancers?

minimise damage to surrounding tissue and other cells (only cancer cells)

5

advantages of monoclonal antibodies?

- bind to specific cells only (healthy cells not affected)

- engineered to treat many diff conditions

- can easily produce a lot of them

6

disadvantages of monoclonal antibodies?

- difficult to attach them to drugs

- expensive to develop

- were produced from mice lymphocytes = often triggered immune response in humans

7

define a vaccine

- a solution which
- contains a small amount of weakened or dead versions of a pathogen which
- stimulates white blood cells to
- produce antibodies complimentary to the antigens

8

what does a vaccine force the immune system to do?

produce antibodies specific to that pathogen (by the lymphocytes)

9

what is immunity?

when lymphocyte cells produce enough antibodies fast enough to destroy pathogen before it causes disease

BUT PATHOGEN STILL ENTERS BODY

10

how do vaccines help in the long term?

upon the real infection, the body has some antibodies in the form of memory cells

(fight off disease faster and without becoming ill)

11

positives and negatives of vaccinations?

POS
- eradicated many disease
- epidemics prevented through herd immunity
- childhood immunisations led to fewer children dying of infectious diseases

NEG
- not always effective with providing immunity
- can have severe allergic reactions

12

what are antibiotics?

medicines that kill bacterial pathogens inside the body

13

would one antibiotic kill all bacteria?

no, different antibiotics are effective against different types of bacteria

14

how do scientists identify the bacteria making you ill?

- doctors send blood sample to lab

- scientists grow bacteria in agar plates

- and treat it with different antibiotics

15

how do antibiotics affect bacteria?

- inhibit cell processes
- stop them from growing

(ie. stop building cell walls)
- which stops diffusion/protein synthesis

16

what is the problem with antibiotics?

overuse may lead to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (non-resistant bacteria are killed off)

17

explain the use of antiseptics in the prevention/treatment of disease

- kill or neutralise all types of pathogens
- do not damage human tissue (so good in surgeries)

18

can one antiseptic kill all microorganisms?

no, different antiseptics act on different microorganisms

19

difference between a disinfectant and antiseptic?

- disinfectant only applied to non-living surfaces (are harmful to human tissue)

- antiseptic do not damage human tissue

20

what are antivirals?

drugs that inhibit the function of viruses (usually by preventing them from replicating)

21

can antivirals kill viruses?
(and explain why)

no, not directly

- as viruses go into cells, and so antiviral drugs would have to kill body cells as well

22

how can antivirals treat viral diseases?

- blocking virus from entering a host cell

- preventing virus from releasing genetic material

- preventing virus from inserting genetic data into host cell's DNA

23

are most antiviral drugs specific?

yes, they are designed to act on one type of cell

24

what is the problem with antiviral drugs?

- hard to produce an effective antiviral
- as viruses mutate very fast
- and so would not be effective

25

what are antiseptics commonly used to do?

sterilise a wound to avoid infection + spread of disease

26

define a zone of inhibition

the area on an agar plate where bacteria cannot grow (as antibiotics kill it)

27

what does the zone of inhibition show?

the effectiveness of an antibiotic

28

how do you measure the zone of inhibition?

calculate the area of it (using πR²)

- ie. measure diameter (then divide by 2)

29

passive vs active immunity?

passive = not have to make own antibodies (ie. from mother's milk)

active = have to produce own antibody (ie. vaccinations)

30

explain what an aseptic technique is

a technique used to ensure that no foreign micro-organisms are introduced into a sample being tested