Flashcards in B7 Deck (18):
diet linked with disease
-poor diet increases risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other diseases through cholesterol levels and indirectly through obesity
what is a non-communicable disease?
a disease which cannot be passed from one individual to another
alcohol and pregnancy causes:
if a pregnant women drinks alcohol, it passes through the placenta into the developing baby. known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome(FAS) it can cause:
-teeth, jaw or hearing problems
-kidney, liver, and heart problems
-learning and other developmental problems
what can alcohol affect/cause?
-affects nervous system, making thought processes, reflexes and many reactions slower than normal
-cirrhosis of the liver, a disease that destroys the liver tissue
-brain damage and death
How do the chemicals in tobacco smoke affect your lungs?
-cilia in trachea and bronchi stop working for a time, allowing dirt and pathogens down into lungs and increasing risk of infections.
what is a causal mechanism?
-a risk factor that may be partly responsible for a disease
-e.g. there is a clear causal link between smoking tobacco and lung cancer
ways to treat cancer:
-radiotherapy, cancer cells are destroyed by targeted doses of radiation
-chemotherapy, chemicals are used to stop the cancer cells dividing or to make them ‘self destruct’
risk factors for disease:
-genes from parents
(lack of exercise)
-UV light from sun
exercise linked with disease:
-exercise levels affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease
how does smoking while pregnant affect the baby?
a fetus exposed to smoke has restricted oxygen
causes of cancer:
-genetic risk factors (breast cancer, ovarian cancer)
-mutations-tar found in tobacco smoke can cause mutations that trigger formation of tumours
-ionising radiation (UV light, X-rays can cause tumours to form)
-virus infections e.g. cervical cancer usually result of infection by HPV
what is a carcinogen?
-substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue
How does Tar from cigarettes effect your body?
-paralyzes and kills cilia making it harder to clear your trachea, developing into smokers cough because you need to cough to get mucus through the trachea.
-also makes your Alveoli more round, with less of a surface area it is harder to get oxygen around the body
what is a malignant tumour cell?
-malignant tumour cells are cancers
-they invade neighbouring tissues and may spread to different parts of the body in the blood where they form secondary tumours
obesity and type 2 diabetes:
-obesity is a casual mechanism(strong risk factor) for type 2 diabetes
what is a benign tumour?
-benign tumours form in one place and do not spread to other tissues
-they can be very dangerous because there is no extra space for them to grow into
What can smoking cause?
-Tar makes smokers more likely to develop bronchitis(inflammation and infection of the bronchi)
-Tar in the lung tissue can lead to breakdown in structure of alveoli, causing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD). reduces the surface area to volume ratio of the lungs, leading to severe breathlessness and eventually death
-tar is a carcinogen. it increases the risk of lung cancer developing