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Flashcards in B6 Deck (15):

what does vaccination involve?

-introducing small amounts of dead or inactive forms of a pathogen into your body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies.
-if the same live pathogen then re-enters the body, the white blood cells respond quickly to produce the correct anitbodies, preventing infection


herd immunity

-if a large proportion of the population is immune to the pathogen, the spread of the pathogen is reduced


what is an antigen?

-a unique protein on a cells surface
-it induces an immune response in the body


what is an antibody?

-a blood protein produced in response to and countering a specific antigen


what do painkillers do?

-treat the symptoms of disease but do not kill the pathogens that cause it


what antibiotics do?

-antibiotics cure bacterial diseases by killing the bacterial pathogens inside your body


why are antibiotics not the complete answer to the problem of infectious diseases?

-antibiotics do not destroy viruses because viruses reproduce inside cells. It is difficult to develop drugs that can destroy viruses without damaging your body cells
-strains of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics are evolving


how antibiotics work?

-antibiotics kill the bacteria that cause disease whilst they are inside your body


where were drugs traditionally extracted from?

-plants, for example, digitalis, or from microorganisms, for example, penicillin


who discovered penicillin?

-Alexander Fleming from the Penicillum mould.


a good medicine is:

-effective-must prevent or cure a disease or make you feel better
-safe-must not be too toxic or have unacceptable side effects for patient
-stable-must be able to use medicine under normal conditions and store for sometime
-successfully taken into removed from your body-must reach its target and be cleared from your system once it has done its work


preclinical drug testing in the laboratory uses:

-live animals


drugs that pass animal testing move on to clinical trials

drugs that pass animal testing move on to clinical trials


what do clinical trials use?

-healthy volunteers and patients
-low doses are used to test for safety, followed by higher doses to test for optim does


what is a double blind trial?

-some patients are given a placebo that does not contain the drug and some are given the mew medicine
-neither the doctor nor the patient know who received the real drug or the placebo until the trial is complete