Draw a diagram to show the circulatory system of the Heart.
Vertebrates have an internal skeleton, what are the 3 advantages of having this?
- Provides support.
- Enables movement.
Protects internal organs.
What are bones?
Rigid tissues that make up the skeleton.
What are muscles?
Tissues that contract and relax.
What are ligaments?
Tough, fibrous, elastic connective tissues that connect bones together in a joint.
It is found on the outside of bones.
What are tendons?
Tough, fibrous, elastic connective tissues that connect muscle to bone or muscle to muscle.
Draw a labelled diagram of a joint.
When raising the arm, your biceps contract/relax?
When raising the arm, your biceps contract.
When lowering the arm, your biceps contract/relax?
When lowering the arm, your biceps relax.
When raising the arm, your triceps contract/relax?
When raising the arm, your triceps relax.
When lowering the arm, your triceps contract/relax?
When lowering the arm, your triceps contract.
When bones move, one muscle contracts whilst another relaxes. What is this called?
An antagonistic pair.
What would happen if your tendons connecting the triceps to the bone were cut?
The triceps would not be able to contract and the arm would remain in the up position.
What is the job of cartilage?
Cartilage is a smooth layer between joints, and a tough connective tissue that helps reduce wear and tear in a joint.
What is the job of synovial fluid?
Synovial fluid is found between cartilage, and enables the joint to move freely by reducing friction and cushioning the joint against bumps and knocks.
What is a practitioner?
Doctors, registered nurses, fitness instructors and opticians who are specially trained to help you maintain and improve your health and fitness.
Why must a practitioner properly assess a patient before any diagnostic tests are carried out?
In order to make sure that the treatment recommended is effective and will not make their condition worse, or cause another problem.
Name the 5 different factors that are assessed by practitioners.
Current medication - Avoid conflicts.
Alcohol consumption - Excessive consumption can cause weight gain, damage to liver and kidneys and interfere with some medications.
Tobacco consumption - Smoking has been directly linked with lung cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure.
Family medical history - Some medical conditions can be genetic (inherited).
Previous treatments - Recurring symptoms may need a different diagnosis or to see a specialist.
Give 3 examples for methods of medical treatment.
Greater levels of fitness.
- A period of recovery.
Rehabilitation, e.g: Learning how to walk again after an accident.
What must a patient be made aware of so that they can make an informed decision before consenting?
- The risks.
- The likelihood of success.
This information will be told by the practitioner.
Why must treatment/fitness programs be monitored?
- To check that it is having the desired effect.
- So that it can be modified depending on the patient's progress.
(Too hard/continued problem/new injury vs too easy/slow progress/patient would not recover fast enough).
What is aerobic fitness?
Aerobic fitness, also known as cardiovascular fitness, is a measurement of the ability for the heart to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscle tissues and the ability of the muscles using oxygen to provide energy for movement.
Name two ways of monitoring progress during training AND explain how to interpret this data.
- Measure the pulse rate (Heart rate).
- Measure their aerobic fitness (Cardiovascular fitness).
You should also be aware of how to interpret this data:
- A patient who is increasing their aerobic fitness should lower their heart rate and have a faster recovery rate.
- Resting blood pressure should be reduced by a fitness programme.
Below is a graph showing the pulse rate of two people over time. Comment on the graph.
LVL 1 answers
- Aliza has a higher pulse rate than stuart (ORA).
LVL 2 answers
- Mention of specific area in time during excercise (Before, during and after).
- Use of figures in answer.
- Stuart is fitter than Aliza.
LVL 3 answers
- Stuart has a shorter recovery time than Aliza (ORA).
- Aliza has a higher resting pulse rate than Stuart (ORA).
N.B: Not a real mark scheme.
Why is regular contact between a patient and practionioner important?
- The practitioner has more opportunity to become familiar with the medical history and background of the patient.
- The patient will feel more comfortable and reassured if they see the same practitioner each time.
What two things may happen after treatment/training?
Tests may be carried out (e.g: Pulse rate/blood pressure).
- The patient may be asked a questionnaire about progress and issues.
What is the equation to calculate BMI?
BMI = Body mass (kg) / Height2 (m2).
You must be aware of how to interpret BMI results. How does this work?
You compare your BMI level on a chart to provide a simple indicator of fitness level.
Why is BMI not an accurate example of fitness level?
- It does not actually measure body-fat levels, and excess body fat indicates poor fitness.
- It does not take into account muscle mass, bone density, overall body composition, and racial and sex differences.
- It is not an absolute measure.
Why might a practitioner not agree with certain treatment or fitness programmes for their patients?
- Due to previous experiences with their patients.
- Values such as BMI, only being an indicator.
- Not suitable due to injury/fitness levels.
Why is it essential that accurate records are kept during treatment/fitness programmes?
To assess progress and determine trends.
What additional information must be contained in progress records?
Accuracy of recording techniques.
Repeatability of recording techniques.
Name 3 examples of injuries that can be obtained through excessive excercise.
Torn ligaments or tendons.
Define a sprain.
A wrench or twist of the ligaments of a joint.
What are the 3 symptoms of a sprain?
Swelling - due to fluid build up at the site of the sprain.
Pain - the joint hurts and may throb.
Redness and warmth - due to increased blood flow to the injured area.
Name 4 treatments for a sprain.
- Rest - Do not move the injured part of the body.
- Ice - Placed on the injury location for short periods (Wrapped in suitable fabric to prevent ice burns) to reduce swelling and bleeding.
- Compression - Gentle pressure to reduce build-up of fluid which causes swelling.
- Elevation - Injured body part should be raised to reduce blood pressure, leading to less blood flow and swelling.
What is a physiotherapist?
Somebody who specialises in the treatment of skeletal-muscular injuries.
They help patients re-train or reuse a part of the body that isn't functioning properly. This is usually done by various excercises to strengthen particular muscles.
A physiotherapist may offer a programme to treat an injured leg. What would this be?
Warm up the joint by riding a stationary excercise bicycle, then straighten and raise the leg.
Extend the leg while sitting (A weight may be worn on the ankle for this).
Raise the leg while lying on the stomach.
Excercise in a pool. e.g: Walk as fast as possible in chest-deep water, perform small flutter kicks while holding onto the side of the pool, and raise each leg to 90o in chest-deep water while pressing the back against the side of the pool.
State the 4 components of the blood.
Red blood cells.
White blood cells.
Explain the function of red blood cells.
Red blood cells carry oxygen. To do this efficiently, they have a bioconcave shape which increases surface area. Also, they are packed with the red pigment, haemoglobin, which binds to oxygen. To make room for this, they have no nucleus.
Explain the function of white blood cells.
Cells which fight infection and defend the body against harmful microorganisms.
Explain the function of platelets.
Platelets are small, colourless, disc-shaped cells without a nucleus, which clot together at injury sites to prevent blood loss.
Explain the function of plasma.
Plasma is a liquid that transports nutrients (e.g: Glucose, mineral salts and amino acids), hormones, antibodies and waste (e.g: CO2 and urea) around the body.
Why is the left side of the heart more muscular than the right?
Because it pumps blood around the whole body, whereas the right side only pumps blood to the lungs.
Describe the atria in the heart.
Atria are smaller, less muscular chambers that receive blood coming back to the heart through the veins.
Describe the ventricles in the heart.
The ventricles are larger, more muscular lower chambers that pump blood out of the heart.
Draw and label the heart.
Where does the heart get its own blood and glucose supply?
From the coronary artery.
This is a branch from the aorta to the heart.
Describe the circulatory system in the heart.
- The heart muscles relax, and blood flows into the atria through veins from the lungs and the rest of the body.
- The atria contract, squeezing blood into the ventricles.
- The ventricles contract, and blood is forced out of the lower chambers, which carry the blood to the body and lungs.
- The heart muscles relax and the whole process starts again.
Humans have a double circulation system. What does this mean?
It means blood returns to the heart twice on every circuit of the body.
(Vena Cava --> Heart --> Pulmonary artery --> Lungs --> Pulmonary vein --> Heart).
What is it called when haemoglobin binds to oxygen?
What are the properties of arteries?
- They carry blood away from the heart.
- They have thick, elastic walls to cope with the high pressure of blood.
- Substances can not pass through the walls.
What are the properties of veins?
- Veins carry blood from the organs back to heart.
- They have thinner, less elastic walls.
- They contain valves to prevent backwards blood flow.
- Substances can not pass through the walls.
What are the properties of capillaries?
- Capillaries connect arteries to veins.
- They have a narrow, thin wall, which is one cell thick.
- Capillaries deal with the exchange of substances between cells and blood.
What is tissue fluid?
Tissue fluid is flitered blood. It enables the nutrients required by cells (e.g: Glucose and hormones) to diffuse into the tissue cells. Also, it collects and carries away some cellular waste products, such as CO2 and urea. Furthermore, it has shock-absorbing properties.
Explain how tissue fluid is formed.
The hydrostatic pressure is high at the start of the capillary, so plasma from the blood diffuses in and out of the capillary through pores and cell membranes.
When blood flow in capillary beds is very slow, the plasma leaves and becomes tissue fluid.
Note that most tissue fluid returns to the capillary bed, and becomes plasma again.
Explain how body temperature is kept constant.
Body temperature is kept constant by balancing energy loss and energy gain.
This is the nervous path for body temperature:
- Temperature receptors in the skin detect the external temperature.
- Information is passes to the processing centre in the brain, the hypothalamus.
- The internal temperature of the blood and external temperature from the receptors is compared.
- Effectors (Sweat glands and muscles) carry out the automatic response.
Why are the feet and hands some of the coldest parts of the body?
Because energy from the blood is transferred to more vital organs by the time it gets to these parts of the body.
What happens if you are too hot?
- You begin to sweat through glands. Water on the skin cools you down.
Vasodilation occurs - Blood vessels in the skin dilate, allowing more blood to flow through the superficial capillary. This capillary is closer to the skin cells, and therefore more heat can be radiated through the cells.
What happens if you are too cold?
- You begin to shiver - Movement of the muscles requires energy from increased respiration, and heat is released a by-product, warming surrounding tissue.
Vasoconstriction occurs - Blood vessels in the skin constrict, reducing the blood flow through the superficial capillary. Therefore, less heat is lost through the surface of the skin by radiation.
Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction are examples of an _____________ response.
Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction are examples of an antagonistic response (Opposite response).
What is the job of insulin?
Insulin is a hormone which makes cells remove sugar from the blood.
What is diabetes?
When the production of the hormone insulin goes wrong. Either the body does not produce enough insulin, or the body is not able to use insulin effectively.
State and explain the two types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes
Occurs when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin. This is usually genetic and symptoms are usually sudden.
Controlled by insulin injections and diet.
Type 2 diabetes
When the body stops responding to its own insulin, or doesn't produce enough insulin. Symptoms are usually gradual.
Usually caused by old age, or as a result of a poor diet or obesity.
May be referred to as late-onset diabetes.
Can be controlled by diet and excercise.
What is the difference between the types of carbohydrates found in processed foods and fruits?
Processed foods use sugars called simple carbohydrates.
Fruits use other sugars called complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates release sugar quickly, causing a rapid rise in blood sugar levels.
Complex carbohydrates release sugar slowly, so they're more likely to help maintain a constant sugar level. Soluble fibres (Like those in fruit, oats and beans) also have the same effect.
Name some conditions that can be developed as a result of high sugar intake.
Cancer (e.g: Bowel cancer).
How is unused glucose converted and stored?
Unused glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver.
Here, glycogen creates reserves of lipids (Fats).
The hormone glucagon is released from alpha cells in the pancreas, which tell the body to remove glucose and absorb it into the blood.
Name two ways of testing for diabetes.
What is a typical "healthy" blood pressure reading?
Name the 3 types of muscle.