What are the risks of Electrical Stimulation?
- It is invasive (e.g: Cut skull, insert electrodes).
Higher risk than other brain mappers such as MRI scans.
- Risk of damage to the brain.
What is a change in an organism's environment called?
What is the nervous chain? Also, label with parts are the PNS and CNS.
Explain how neuron pathways are strengthened.
The areas that are stimulated the most in the brain develop more synapses between neurons, strengthening the pathway.
Explain with a diagram what synapses are and how they work.
What is a reflex action?
A fast, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus.
Give 4 examples of baby reflexes found in humans.
Give 3 examples of adult reflexes found in humans.
- Knee-jerk reflex.
- Dropping a hot object when gripped.
- Blinking when an object comes near your face.
What is a conditioned reflex?
An association between the primary stimulus (The natural stimulus) and the secondary stimulus (The new stimulus).
Note: In a conditioned reflex, the final response has no direct connection to the stimulus.
What is conditioning?
The process of associating the stimuli.
Give an example of when a conditioned reflex would be useful.
A frog eating a wasp and then associating the yellow and black colour with danger.
How can we modify reflex actions?
By sending a signal, via a neuron, to the motor neuron in the reflex arc.
Name and explain 3 ways of mapping the cerebral cortex.
- PHYSIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES:
- Damage to different parts of the brain can cause different problems (e.g: Memory loss/speech loss).
We can study which parts of the brain cause which problems to gain an understanding.
- ELECTRONIC TECHNIQUES:
- Placing electrodes on the scalp through EEG and stimulating a patient's receptors, we can map the parts of the brain that respond.
- MRI SCANS:
- MRI produces images of cross-sections of the brain, using colour to represent different levels of electrical activity.
The activity in the brain changes based on what the patient is doing or thinking.
Name the way we generate a 3D image showing neuron activity in the brain.
Name two ways of checking if babies are undergoing normal development.
- At three months, babies should be able to lift their heads when held to someone's shoulder.
- At twelve months, babies should be able to hold and drink from a cup.
What are feral children, and what have they taught us about humans?
Feral children are children that have been isolated from society, and don't ever gain the ability to talk. This shows that children only learn some skills at particular stages in their development.
Give an example of how animals can adapt to new situations.
Dogs can be trained to respond to commands or dolphins in captivity can be trained to collect food from a hand.
What does the cerebral cortex deal with?
Intelligence, memory, language and consciousness which are some of the skills than enable human survival.
What do Ectasy/MDMA and Prozac do to synapses?
Block reuptake channels.
Build up serotonin concentrations.
- Give the user feelings of elation.
- Can cause memory loss.
Increases ADH production.
- Causes severe dehydration.
What do Beta blockers do to synapses?