Name the 3 types of pathogen microorganisms.
Bacteria, e.g: Tuberculosis (TB). Treated by antibiotics.
Fungi, e.g: Athlete's foot. Treated by anti-fungal medicine and antibiotics.
Viruses, e.g: Common cold. Difficult to treat.
What are the receptors that antibodies attach to on pathogens called?
How come our bodies are able to produce antibodies quicker if the body is reinfected by the same virus?
Because memory cells "remember" the antigens and can detect them. This is natural immunity.
Remember, they remember the antibodies that need to be produced for that specific pathogen, and can produce them at a faster rate.
If >__% of people are vaccinated, then the risk of an unvaccinated person being infected is small.
If >95% of people are vaccinated, then the risk of an unvaccinated person being infected is small.
Why should ill patients continue taking antibiotics as long as the course is prescribed for?
Because there may still be harmful bacteria in the body, which can reproduce.
What is an Open-label trial?
A new drug. Both the doctor and patient are made aware.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of testing human cells grown in the Laboratory?
- Show if drugs are effective.
- Show if drugs will damage cells.
- No people or animals are harmed.
- Don't show effects on whole organism.
- Some say growing human cells is wrong.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Animal Testing?
- Show if drugs are effective within body conditions.
- Show if drugs are safe for the whole body.
- Animals can suffer and die.
- Animals may react differently to humans.
What are capillaries?
Capillaries allow food and oxygen to diffuse to cells while waste is diffused from cells.
They have walls only one cell thick, that allow them to effectively perform their function.
What has a thin wall and wide lumen? An artery or vein?
A vein has a thin wall and wide lumen.
Blood pressure is given in two numbers:
- A higher number.
- A lower number.
What do these numbers mean?
- The higher number is obtained whilst the heart is contracting.
- The lower number is obtained whilst the heart is relaxing.
If the numbers are high, this can indicate a high risk of heart disease.
Name two ways water is gained.
Water is gained via...
- Food and drinks.
Name three ways water is lost.
Water is lost via...
- Excretion of faces and urine.
What is homeostasis?
The regulation of internal body conditions.
It is controlled via hormones and nervous impulses.
How are our internal blood sugar levels controlled?
- By the release and storage of glucose, which in turn is controlled by the hormone insulin.
How are our internal body temperatures controlled?
- Controlling blood flow to the skin.
Draw the negative feedback diagram for blood water level.
Alcohol causes more/less ADH to be produced.
Alcohol causes less ADH to be produced.
Ectasy causes more/less ADH to be produced.
Ectasy causes more ADH to be produced.
Osmosis then causes the water to leave the blood, causing brain cells to swell and burst.
What are the "Y shaped proteins" which function to identify and help remove foreign antigens or targets such as viruses and bacteria called?
Remember: Every different antibody fits a different antigen.
NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) are the organisation that decide whether or not to license drugs in the UK.
Discuss the issues that will have to be considered by NICE when deciding whether or not to license a drug which significantly reduces a person's chance of developing heart disease, and has rare but serious side effects.
Level 3 ideas - Ethical/Social arguements
- Opinionated - can not be answered by science.
- Financial pot is a fixed size. Diverting resources from elsewhere.
- Should people who are healthy divert resources from those who are ill?
Level 2 ideas
- How much will it cost?
- Is it right to give the medicine to healthy people?
- Should only people 'at risk' get the drug?
- Lifestyle choices could reduce / affect heart disease.
Level 1 ideas
- [High Level 1] - Benefits outweigh the risks.
- What are the benefits of the drug?
- What are the risks of the drug?
- Does it benefit the majority of people?
What are the stages of drug testing?
- Drug first tested on animals and human skin cells.
- Drug tested for safety only on healthy people.
- Drug tested for safety and effectiveness on ill patient volunteers.
- Drug released and monitored on the market.
Give reasons why some pathogens result in more deaths than others?