Flashcards in Babbie Chapter 1 Deck (21):
It must make sense
It must not contradict actual observation
Define epistemology (and methodology)
The science of knowing (the science of finding out)
The effects of an event occur more often when the causes occur than when the causes are absent, but the effects do not always occur when the causes do.
Explain ordinary human inquiry
Aiming to answer "what" and "why" questions by observing and figuring out.
Difference between tradition and authority
Tradition is believing what everyone else believes, authority is believing an expert.
How do you avoid overgeneralization?
Use a sufficiently large sample of observations and repeating a study to receive the same results (replication). Then one can repeat the study under slightly different conditions, to get a greater understanding.
Explain selective observation
Having found a particular pattern and a general understanding, you then focus on future events that fit the pattern and not on those that don't.
Explain the gambler's fallacy (illogical reasoning)
A streak of good or bad luck is presumed to foreshadow the opposite, however this is not true, and thus is illogical reasoning.
Explain the premodern view
There is one point of view that all people in a society see as true and anyone who does not believe the same is wrong (e.g a tribe saying a spirit in a tree is evil will be that tribes belief, and anyone who says the spirit is good is wrong).
Explain the modern view
There are many different beliefs and they are not right or wrong, they are simply beliefs (there is a spirit in the tree, but he is not good or evil).
Explain the postmodern view
All that is "real" is just an image in each person's mind, nothing really exists.
Characteristics or qualities that describe an object.
Logical groupings of attributes, attributes make up variables.
Difference between dependent and independent variables
Dependent variables is a variable that is caused by an independent variable. An independent variable is a variable with values that are not problematic in an analysis. A variable might be dependent in one analysis but independent in another.
An approach to explanation that exhausts idiosyncratic (unique, distinct) causes of an event or condition. Looking at one specific event.
Seeking to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. A partial explanation for a group of events.
The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations.
The logical model in which specific expectations are developed on the basis of general principles.
Define qualitative data