Babbie Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Babbie Chapter 1 Deck (21):

Define logical

It must make sense


Define empirical

It must not contradict actual observation


Define epistemology (and methodology)

The science of knowing (the science of finding out)


Explain probabilistic

The effects of an event occur more often when the causes occur than when the causes are absent, but the effects do not always occur when the causes do.


Explain ordinary human inquiry

Aiming to answer "what" and "why" questions by observing and figuring out.


Difference between tradition and authority

Tradition is believing what everyone else believes, authority is believing an expert.


How do you avoid overgeneralization?

Use a sufficiently large sample of observations and repeating a study to receive the same results (replication). Then one can repeat the study under slightly different conditions, to get a greater understanding.


Explain selective observation

Having found a particular pattern and a general understanding, you then focus on future events that fit the pattern and not on those that don't.


Explain the gambler's fallacy (illogical reasoning)

A streak of good or bad luck is presumed to foreshadow the opposite, however this is not true, and thus is illogical reasoning.


Explain the premodern view

There is one point of view that all people in a society see as true and anyone who does not believe the same is wrong (e.g a tribe saying a spirit in a tree is evil will be that tribes belief, and anyone who says the spirit is good is wrong).


Explain the modern view

There are many different beliefs and they are not right or wrong, they are simply beliefs (there is a spirit in the tree, but he is not good or evil).


Explain the postmodern view

All that is "real" is just an image in each person's mind, nothing really exists.


Define attributes

Characteristics or qualities that describe an object.


Define variables

Logical groupings of attributes, attributes make up variables.


Difference between dependent and independent variables

Dependent variables is a variable that is caused by an independent variable. An independent variable is a variable with values that are not problematic in an analysis. A variable might be dependent in one analysis but independent in another.


Define idiographic

An approach to explanation that exhausts idiosyncratic (unique, distinct) causes of an event or condition. Looking at one specific event.


Define nomothetic

Seeking to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. A partial explanation for a group of events.


Define induction

The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations.


Define deduction

The logical model in which specific expectations are developed on the basis of general principles.


Define qualitative data

Nonnumerical data


Define quantitative data

Numerical data