Babbie Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Babbie Chapter 2 Deck (12):
1

Define paradigm

A model for observation and understanding, which shapes both the way we see and how we understand it.

2

Define macrotheory

A theory aimed at understanding the big picture of institutions, whole societies, and the interactions among societies.

3

Define microtheory

A theory aimed at understanding social life at the level of individuals and their interactions.

4

Explain early positivism, as described by Comte

Knowledge is based on observations through the five senses and not through belief.

5

Explain the conflict paradigm, as defined by Karl Marx

The attempt to dominate others and avoid being dominated. Marx focused on the struggle between economic classes and was committed to ending oppression of workers. Generally, the conflict paradigm is applied to end struggles of groups.

6

Explain ethnomethodology

Everyone is making sense of the life they experience, everyone is a social scientist.

7

Explain structural functionalism

A social entity can be seen as an organism, which is made up of parts which all must function to keep the organism alive.

8

Explain feminist paradigms

Focuses on gender differences and how they relate to the rest of social organisation. Draw attention to the oppression of women in many societies, which sheds light on oppression in general. These paradigms point out limitations in how other aspects of society are examined and understood, e.g. concerns for the environment.

9

Define interest convergence

The idea that majorities will only support the interests of minorities if those actions also support the interests of the majorities.

10

Name the three main elements in the traditional model of science

Theory
Operationalisation
Observation

11

Define null hypothesis

The hypothesis that suggests there is no relationship among the variables being studied.

12

Define operational definition

The concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the operations one would take to get to the thing. E.g. the operational definition of passing the exam on Friday is to get 17/30 points.