Flashcards in Back and Spinal Cord injury Deck (35):
ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) nerve root for elbow flexors?
ASIA nerve root for wrist extensors?
ASIA nerve root for elbow extensors?
ASIA nerve root for finger flexors?
ASIA nerve root for finger abductors?
why must CE syndrome be treated within 48hrs of onset of sphincter symptoms?
so as not to result in:
need for intermittent catheterisation
DRE- digital rectal evacuation
*espec. important as syndrome occurs in young people- between 20 and 40 ish?, so would have to live with these symptoms for the rest of their lives.
most common cause of CE syndrome?
IV disc herniation*
hip flexion nerve roots?
hip extension nerve roots?
hip abduction nerve roots?
hip adduction nerve roots?
hip internal rotation nerve roots?
hip external rotation nerve roots?
knee extension nerve roots?
knee flexion nerve roots?
ankle dorsiflexion nerve roots?
L4, L5 (mainly L5*)
ankle plantarflexion nerve roots?
subtalar inversion nerve roots?
subtalar eversion nerve roots?
extension of big toe nerve root?
toe extensor nerve roots?
toe long flexor nerve roots?
what is a myelopathic gait?
broad base, and shuffle, with disruption in smooth, rhythmic function
red flag symptoms in presentation of back pain?
age outside 18-55
non-mechanical- not relieved by rest
thoracic pain- thoracic spine less mobile in comparison to cervical and lumbar
systemic features- night sweats, weight loss
widespread neurology- symptoms cannot be related to just 1 nerve root
Ca history or infection
steroid/drug abuse- immunocompromised- infection risk
history of trauma
characteristics of true SCIATICA?
pain below knees, intense, aggravated by coughing and straining
often in assoc. with numbness and paraesthesia
characteristics of numbness or paraesthesia in spinal stenosis?
aggravated by standing upright or walking
relieved by bending forward or sitting down
why should urethral discharge, diarrhoea and sore eyes be considered in a back disorder case?
features of Reiter's disease= cause of 'reactive' spondylitis
what name means vertebral displacement?
aetiology of ankylosing spondylitis?
associated with HLA-B27 gene
gene also linked to reactive arthritis, some forms of psoriatic arthritis and enteropathic arthritis assoc. with UC and Crohn's
typical causes of back pain according to age?
15-30yrs= prolapsed disc, trauma, fractures, AS, spondylolisthesis, pregnancy
>30= prolapsed disc, cancer
>50= degenerative, OP, Paget's, malignancy, myeloma, lumbar artery atheroma
definition of recurrent low back pain?
new episode of pain after a symptom free period of 6 months
why must considerations be made to stiffness in presentation of back pain?
severe morning stiffness may indicate diagnosis of RA or AS
indications of AS in relation to movement?
inactivity aggravates pain, exercise provides relief
blood and urine tests in back pain?
FBC, ESR, CRP, urine analysis if cancer, infection or inflammation is suspected.
LFTs may be helpful. ALP can be elevated in metastatic disease and Paget's disease of bone.
PSA will be raised particularly in carcinoma of the prostate.
Urinary hydroxyproline will be markedly elevated (with increased bone turnover) in Paget's disease of bone.
Nephrolithiasis may produce red cells in the urine.