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Flashcards in Hip and Knee Deck (71):
1

when is genu varum normal?

in children for 1-2 yrs after starting to walk

2

when is genu valgum normal?

in children 2-4 yrs of age

3

what is genus varum?

reduced Q angle= angle between the femur and the tibia, with a medial angulation of the leg in relation to the thigh (bowleg).
puts excess pressure on medial aspect of knee joint, and overstresses the fibular collateral ligament.

4

what is Lachman's test?

used to test for injury to ACL
displacement of femur and tibia assessed

5

benefits of a unicompartmental (partial) knee replacement?

quicker recovery
better function
same level of pain relief as TKR, but with less scarring and bruising
range of movement often better than with TKR

6

why is a unicompartmental knee replacement not suitable for everyone?

need strong healthy ligaments in knee
disease affecting >1 compartment
more likely to need knee revised than with TKR

7

red flag symptoms in ptnt presenting with hip pain?

unable to bear weight
severe night pain
history of malignancy and hip pain
rapid worsening of symtoms

8

considerations in site of hip pain?

radiation to groin- likely to be hip
greater trochanter- ?trochanteric bursitis, NOF#

9

how can intensity of hip pain be assessed?

how far can ptnt walk?- also assess loss of function, do they need a walking aid?- stick, or walker?
scale of 1-10
night pain

10

how can aggravating factors to hip pain be asked about?

pain at night?
exercise?- mechanical pain, biological-rest
walking up and down stairs?
pain post sitting down for long periods, getting out of a chair?- start-up pain?

11

how is stiffness asked about in hip pain?

can they reach their feet, can they put socks and shoes on?
how difficult is it to get into and out of a car, or bath?

12

what does start-up pain indicate?

OA

13

why does start-up pain occur with OA?

articular cartilage has been lost, and during inactivity, there is a reduction in fluid film, so bone ends up grinding on bone, causing pain when ptnt first moves.

14

other than assessment of hip pain and secondary symptoms, what else is it important to ask in history of ptnt with hip pain?

drug history- pain relief?- has it helped?
PMH: cancer?
FH: arthritis?
SH: occupation?- can they still do this?
exercise, activities enjoyed- how have they been disrupted? how are they managing at home, live alone? stairs? house adjustments e.g. lowered seats, bars?

15

**classical history of ptnt with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS)?

terrible, constant pain over lateral hip, can't sleep on that side

16

what are you looking for when ptnt on bed in hip exam?

symmetry, scars, muscle wasting- indicate not been walking on that side? erythema, hernias
limb length- can assess by feeling medial malleoli

17

what do you palpate in hip exam.?

distal pulses- must ensure good blood supply intact if thinking of operating
iliac crest, ASIS, PSIS, greater trochanter, ischial tuberosity
tenderness?

18

types of extracapsular hip fractures?

trochanteric- inter- and reverse oblique
subtrochanteric

19

how does a tibial osteotomy work for tment of knee OA?

a wedge of bone is removed from the outside of the tibia, under the healthy side of the knee
on closing the wedge, the leg is straightened, which brings the bones on the healthy side of the knee closer together, creating more space between the bones on the damaged side.

20

3 goals of knee osteotomy?

transfer weight from arthritic part of join to healthier area
correct poor knee alignment
prolong lifespan of knee joint

21

hip blood supply?

mainly medial lateral circumflex femoral artery, also lateral circumflex, both give rise to retinacular arteries
also artery of ligamentum teres
and nutrient (medullary) artery

22

how does avascular necrosis of hip joint appear on radiograph?

appears white as loss of stability causes compression
rough

23

what provides nourishment of articular cartilage?

synovial fluid

24

why must a hip infection be treated quickly?

to stop progression to septic arthritis in which lost cartilage will result in hip pain for life
requires urgent decompression*

25

comparisons regarding benefits and risks associated with THR and hemiarthroplasty for treating hip fractures?

both assoc. with lower reoperation rates and better function than internal fixation in ptnt with displaced IC hip fractures
THR may be assoc. with lower reoperation rates and better function than hemi
but THR has slightly higher risk of dislocations and general comlications- tnt must be fitter?

26

how do bone edges appear in a hip fracture in contrast to smooth edges normally seen?

raggedy

27

where is apparent leg length measured?

from umbilicus or xiphisternum to medial malleolus

28

where is true leg length measured?

from ASIS to medial malleolus

29

inspecting ptnt from a far in hip exam., what are you looking for?

look at hips, any pelvic tilting? are they symmetrical
look at spine- any scoliosis?
look at knees
can observe muscle wasting e.g. from disuse, infection, polio
can look for a rotational deformity- common in OA*

30

ptnt must be inspected from front, side and behind. what are we looking for from the side and back?

increased lumbar lordosis- suggestive of fixed flexion deformity of hip- tested in Thomas test

back- scoliosis- may be secondary to pelvic tilting, gluteal muscle wasting e.g. from disuse, infection, and sinus scars- e.g. secondary to TB

31

what to look at 1st when inspecting gait of an individual?

look at heel strike

32

why does limb appear short in apparent shortening?

adduction contracture of hip, which is compensated for by tilting of pelvis

33

how might a ptnt noticeably compensate for limb shortening?

plantarflexion of foot on affected side
flexion of knee on unaffected side
pelvic tilting, may compensate for by development of a lumbar scoliosis

34

in true limb shortening, what will be notes when ptnt supine?

heels will not be level, but pelvis will not be tilted

35

where does iliopsoas insert?

lesser trochanter of femur

36

origin of hamstrings?

ischial tuberosity
except short head of biceps femoris- posterior aspect of femur

37

a loss affecting hip extension only is often 1st detectable sign of what?

hip joint effusion

38

normal hip extension range?

5-20 degrees

39

normal range of hip flexion?

120 degrees

40

normal range of hip abduction?

40 degrees

41

how can the faber sign be elicited?

both hips and knees flexed, place (L) foot on opp. knee and gently press down on knee of (L) leg
(Patrick's test)

42

normal range of hip adduction?

25 degrees

43

normal range of internal rotation of hip at 90 degrees flexion?

45 degrees

44

normal range of hip external rotation at 90 degrees flexion?

45 degrees

45

normal range of hip internal rotation in extension?

35 degrees

46

normal range of hip external rotation in extension?

45 degrees

47

causes of coxa vara?

congenital
rickets
paget's disease
osteomalacia
fracture

48

causes of coxa valga?

polio
neurological disturbances

49

what is Perthe's disease?

condition in which blood supply to epiphysis of femoral head is disturbed, so a portion undergoes avascular necrosis
commonly presents between ages of 4 and 6, and commoner in boys than girls
assoc. with anteversion of femoral neck
usually presents with a limp, and vague pains in hips, thighs or knees

50

tment of acute symptoms in perthe's disease?

bed rest and traction
followed by physio

51

what happens in a SUFE (slipped upper femoral epiphysis) of hip?

attachment of femoral epiphysis to femoral neck loosens, so head appears to slide downwards on femoral neck, eventually producing a coxa vara hip deformity.
may be history of preceding
may be hormonal disturbance

disease of adolescence, more common in boys

52

late complications of SUFE?

femoral head avascular necrosis
chondrolysis

53

presentation of SUFE?

pain in groin or knee
may be impossible to weight bear
internal rotation and abduction of affected hip restricted

54

tment of SUFE?

internal fixation of epiphysis without reduction
if large amount of acute displacement, may reduce before fixation, but this may increase risk of AN
osteotomy of femoral neck if longstanding
may do prophylactic pinning of other hip if not bilateral, but only if high risk

55

swelling should be noted on knee observation, what might be indicated if swelling extends beyond limits of joint cavity?

infection- of joint, femur or tibia
tumour
major injury

56

what might be cause of swelling in joint line of knee?

meniscus cyst

57

importance if noting knee bruising?

indicates trauma
not usually seen with meniscus tears

58

why is evidence of psoriasis important to note in looking at the knee? e.g. red, scaly patches, may have nail changes- nail pitting and onycholysis (nail plate separation from nail bed)

may be a psoriatic arthritis

59

why might knee be warm and foot cold?

popliteal artery block

60

normal knee flexion range?

135 degrees or more

61

with what disease is genu valgum most commonly assoc. with in adults?

RA

62

what is a Girdlestone procedure?

an excision arthroplasty of the hip

63

indications for a Girdlestone procedure?

peri-prosthetic infection
aseptic loosening
recurrent dislocation
failed internal fixation of femoral neck fractures

64

benefits of SA over GA in THR operation?

reduced blood loss during surgery- reduce need for blood transfusion, as reduction in arterial and venous pressure with sympathetic blockage
decreased bleeding at operative site, improved cement bonding and reduced surgical time
reduce VTE incidence
avoid -ve effects on pulmonary function of GA
good early PO analgesia
lower cost

65

what do the cruciate ligaments lie within?

the intercondylar notch of the femur

66

why do meniscal tears involving central portion have poor healing?

only peripheral edges of menisci have an appreciable blood supply

67

describe Apley's test and Thessaly's test?

used to test for meniscal tears

68

origin of rectus femoris?

AIIS

69

difference between locking and pseudolocking of the knee?*

locking- mechanical obstruction to knee joint being extended e.g. a loose body in the joint, torn meniscus
pseudolocking- knee is being prevented from being moved due to pain, but no physical obstruction

70

how much time should be left if repeat steroid injections into joint?

must be given at least 3 mnths apart

71

what name is given to the condition producing knee pain often in young athletes due to wearing away of cartilage on the undersurface of the patella?

chondromalacia patellae