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Flashcards in Radiology Deck (39):
1

how can assessment of the femoral neck alongside the superior pubic ramus on a hip X-ray help decide if there is a hip fracture?

can look for Shenton's line= formed by medial edge of femoral neck and inferior edge of superior pubic ramus. loss of contour is a sign of fractured neck of femur, but isn't always present in this case.

2

indications on AP view hip X-ray of an intracapsular hip fracture?

disruption of Shenton's line
displacement- impaction, shenton's line disrupted, trabeculae disrupted
lesser trochanter more prominent due to external rotation of femur
fracture line?
increased bone density- overlapping bone with impaction
femoral neck shortened
loss of cortical bone integrity

3

what should be considered if femoral shaft fracture on X-ray but no history of high force impact trauma?

pathological fracture- malignancy, infection or metabolic e.g. osteoporosis, osteomalacia

4

what radiograph view is more likely to show a patella fracture?

lateral view

5

on a lateral view radiograph of the knee, what might increased density above the patella suggest in the context of a fracture?

a joint effusion e.g. leakage of blood (haemarthrosis) in a fracture

6

on what view of the knee is a patella dislocation obvious?

skyline view

7

what is a fabella?

a normal sesamoid bone of the lateral head of gastrocnemius tendon - not to be mistaken for a fracture or loose body

8

what name is given to a normal variant of the patella in which the patella is in 2 parts?

a bipartite patella

9

characteristics of ptnt history if tibial stress fracture?

history of chronic tibial pain, worsened by activity

10

standard views of calcaneus?

lateral and axial

11

apophyses can be mistaken for fractures on radiographs, what are they?

a normal developmental outgrowth of a bone which arises from a separate ossification centre, and fuses to the bone later in development

12

how is radiograph described if there isn't more than 1 fracture piece?

non-comminuted

13

standard wrist views?

PA
lateral

14

in assessing the wrist, alignment of which bones should be looked for on lateral radiograph?

radius, lunate, capitate

15

2 extra views added to normal views in suspected scaphoid fracture (history of post-traumatic wrist pain with tenderness over anatomical snuffbox)?

oblique
PA with ulnar deviation

16

on what view is a hamate fracture best seen?

oblique view

17

most commonly injured carpal ligament?

scapholunate

injury best seen on radiograph when wrist stressed in ulnar deviation

18

sign on radiograph when scapholunate ligament tear injury?

Terry Thomas sign (gap tooth sign)-widening of scapholunate distance

19

the most common dislocations of the wrist involve which carpal bone?

lunate

20

name for when capitate is not congruent with lunate?

peri-lunate dislocation

if luante dislocated from radius, then lunate dislocation is used

21

standard views of hand and fingers?

PA
oblique
lateral

22

what on a radiograph is often a useful sign of a finger fracture?

soft tissue swelling

23

most common metacarpal fracture?

boxer's fracture- 5th metacarpal fracture (at neck)

24

what is a Bennett's fracture?

intra-articular fracture of thumb metacarpal base, with subluxation/dislocation of metacarpal base
occurs with forced abduction of thumb

25

what is a Mallet finger injury?

flexion deformity of distal IPJ of finger due to injury to extensor tendon to distal phalanx
can be tendinous or bony injury, depending on if there is avulsion of the bone with the tendon
usually result of traumatic impaction blow to finger, which forces DIPJ into flexion

26

in which direction does displacement of distal fragment of clavicle occur in clavicle fractures?

inferior

trapezius unable to hold up weight of upper limb

27

what are posterior dislocations of the shoulder associated with?

electric shocks and epileptic seizures

28

what is a bony bankart lesion?

visible injury to bony glenoid on a radiograph
occurs with shoulder dislocation

29

order of elbow ossification centre development?

CRITOL:
capitulum
radial head
internal (medial) epicondyle
trochlea
olecranon
lateral epicondyle

30

relvance of posterior fat pad being visible on radiograph of elbow?

always ABNORMAL

31

another name for the midline of the radial shaft?

radiocapitellar line
this should always pass through middle of capitulum

32

what name is given to an ulnar shaft fracture with shortening, and radius dislocation at its point of wkness at the elbow?

Monteggia fracture-dislocation

33

what is a Galeazzi fracture-dislocation?

radius fracture with shortening, and ulna dislocation at its point of wkness at distal RU joint

34

what happens to the ulnocarpal space in a Colle's fracture?

it is narrowed due to shortening

35

name given to a distal radius fracture in which there is palmar (volar) angulation and displacement, and radial shortening?

Smith's fracture

36

what is a Barton's fracture?

fracture involving the articular surface of wrist (between radius and scaphoid and lunate) with dorsal displacement of the wrist bones

37

what is a Greenstick fracture?

occurs in children where bones more compliant
on a radiograph, there is a visible fracture in the cortex on one side with buckling on the other

38

what is a torus fracture?

buckling without a visible fracture line

39

X-ray appearance in infection?

perisoteal reaction- increased bone density around cortex
soft tissue swelling

take 1 week to appear