Back, lymphatics and nerves Flashcards Preview

Science for medicine anatomy > Back, lymphatics and nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in Back, lymphatics and nerves Deck (83):
1

where is the spinous process of a vertebra?

it is the most posterior structure. It is a process that extends posteriorly and in the thoracic regions also inferiorly

2

what is the lamina of a vertebra?

the region between the spinous process and the transverse process

3

what are the transverse processes of a vertebra

the structures located on the lateral sides of the vertebral arch

4

what are the pedicles of a vertebra?

regions connecting the body and transverse processes

5

what is the vertebral foramen of a vertebra?

the channel in the centre of the vertebral arch

6

what are the articular facets of a vertebra?

flat surfaces on the vertebral arch that form articular fate joints between vertebrae

7

what is a intervertebral foramen?

the hole between the vertebral arches of adjacent vertebrae which spinal nerve roots pass through

8

how many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

9

how many thoracic
vertebrae are there?

12

10

how many lumbar vertebra are there?

5

11

how many sacral vertebra are there?

5

12

what is the name of C1?

atlas

13

what is the name of C2?

axis

14

what is the process on C1 that connects C1 and C2 together?

dens

15

what is the name of C7?

vertebra prominens

16

what are the identifiable featurs of a cervical vertebra?

-contain foramen transversium in the transverse processes
-small body
-facets are on the transverse plane

17

what are the identifiable features of a thoraccic vertebra?

-heart-shaped body
-articular facets on body and transverse process for rib attachment
-long spinous processes which point inferiorly

18

what are the identifiable features of a lumbar vertebra?

- large round body
- large rounded spinous process

19

what type of joint is found between vertebral bodies?

intervertebral disc- symphysis

20

what type of joint are articular facets?

synovial plane

21

what is the outer part of the intervertebral disc called?

anulus fibrosis

22

what is the inner part of the intervertebral disc called?

nucleus pulposis

23

what is a herniated "slipped" disc?

when damage to the anulus fibrosis causes the nucleus pulposis to protrudes posteriolaterally through and put pressure on the spinal nerve root

24

where is the supraspinous ligament found?

posterior of vertebrae, connecting all the spinous processed posteriorly

25

where is the ligamentum flavum found?

connecting the laminae of adjacent vertebrae

26

where is the interspinous ligament located?

connecting the superior and inferior parts of adjacent spinous processes

27

where is the anterior longitudinal ligament located?

connecting the anterior of the bodies

28

where is the posterior longitudinal ligament located?

the posterior of the bodies

29

what are the two kyphoses of the spine?

thoracic kyphosis
sacral kyphosis

30

whar are the two lordoses of the spine?

cervical lordosis
lumbar lordosis

31

how is the cervical lordosis formed?

in infancy when a baby begins to lift its head up

32

how is the lumbar lordosis formed?

when a child begins to walk

33

what is scoliosis?

when the spine bends abnormally laterally

34

In what plane are the facets of cervical vertebrae positioned and what movement does this allow?

on the transverse plane. allows movement in the transverse plane (rotation)

35

In what plane are the facets of thoracic vertebrae positioned and what movement does this allow?

on the coronal plane, this allows movement in the coronal plane (lateral flexion) however this movement is very restricted

36

In what plane are the facets of lumbar vertebrae positioned and what movement does this allow?

on the sagittal plane, this allows movement in the sagittal plane (flexion and extension)

37

which movements are permitted in the cervical region?

rotation, flexion, extension, lateral flexion and extension

38

which movements are permitted in the thoracic region?

very restricted movement but a little lateral flexion

39

which movements are permitted in the lumbar region?

flexion, extension, rotation, lateral flexion

40

where are the erector spinae muscles situated?

posteriorly between the spinous processes and the transverse processes

41

which other muscles apart from erector spinae act on the vertebral colomn?

sternoceidomastoid and the anterior muscles of the abdominal walls (obliques, rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis)

42

at what vertebral level is the spine of the scapula?

T3

43

At what vertebral level is the inferior angle of the scapula?

T7

44

at what vertebral level is the summit of the iliac crest?

L4

45

at what vertebral level is the sternal angle?

T4

46

at what vertebral level is the xiphistrenal joint?

T9

47

between which vertebrae is a lumbar puncture performed on an adult?

between L3 and L4

48

between which vertebrae is a lumbar puncture performed on a child?

between L4 and L5

49

at what spinal level does the spinal cord end in an adult ?

L1

50

at what spinal level does the spinal cord end in an child?

L3

51

which organs and tissues are not lymphatically drained?

cartilage, eyes, inner ears, brain and spinal cord

52

describe the structure of a lymph node?

outer portion is called the cortex, it contains B-lymphocytes. In the cortex there are follicles that contain germinal centres these are the site of B cell proliferation and also house B cells.
moving further in we come to the paracortex this is were the T lymphocytes are found
In the centre is the medulla, this is the site of macrophages.

53

what is a sentinal node?

the first lymph node the lymph passes through after leaving a structure. In cancer the sentinal node is the first node that a cancer spreads

54

where is the thoracic duct found?

between the azygos vein and the aorta on the right side of the posterior thoracic wall.

55

where does the thoracic duct cross the vertebral column from the right to the left side?

at T4

56

which duct drain the right upper quadrant of the body?

right lymphatic duct

57

which duct drains the upper left quadrant and the two lower quadrants?

the thoracic duct

58

what is the structure called where the thoracic duct begins and what is the spinal level of this structure?

cisterna chyli
L1

59

which vein does the thoracic duct drain into?

the left subclavian vein

60

where does the spinal cord begin and end in adults?

begins at the occipital bone and extends down to the gap between L1 and L2

61

what is the structure called at the distal end of the spinal cord?

conus medullaris

62

what connects the spinal cord to the coccyx?

a fibrous extension called the filum terminale

63

why are there enlargments of the spinal cord between C5-T1 and L1-S4?

these are the areas whose spinal roots form the nerve plexises so they contain more grey matter

64

what is the cauda equina

the nerves of L2 to the coccyx that extend from the conus medullaris

65

what type of nerve impulses are associated with the lateral horn of the spinal cord?

autonomic

66

name the three layers of the meninges?

dura mater, archnoid mater and pia mater

67

what is the primary function of the meninges?

cushion and protect the central nervous system

68

to which spinal level does the dura mater extend?

S3

69

to which spinal level does the arachnoid mater extend?

S2

70

where is the CSF located?

the subarachnoid space

71

between which structures is the spinal epidural space found?

between the spinal dura and the periosteum covering the vertebral bodies

72

what structure of blood vessels drains the vertebrae and the spinal cord?

the vertebral venous plexus found in the fatty tissue within the epidural space

73

from which vertebral levels do sympathetic nerve fibres emerge?

T1-L2

74

what is the white ramus communicans?

it is the nerve carrying myelinated preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres from the spinal cord to the paravertebral (sympathetic) chain

75

what is the grey ramus communicans?

it is the nerve carrying unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres from the paravertebral (sympathetic) chain to the mixed spinal nerve carrying signals to the effector

76

what is a splanchnic nerve?

a nerve that innervates a organs of the abdomen with autonomic fibres, if the nerve is thoracic the fibres are sympathetic, if it is pelvic it is parasympathetic.

77

between which spinal levels do thoracic splanchnic nerves originate?

T6-T12

78

where do planchnic nerves synapse?

they run straight through the paravertebral chain and synapse in pre-aortic ganglia

79

which spinal cord segments give rise to parasympathetic nerves?

some cranial nerves and S2-S4

80

what kind of autonomic nerves are found in the splanchnic nerves from T6-T12?

sympathetic

81

where do the splanchnic parasympathetic nerves originate?

S2-S4

82

what are the large autonomic nerve plexuses?

cardiac, pulmonary, coeliac, superior hypogastric and inferiorhypogastric(pelvic)

83

what is a large autonomic nerve plexus?

a nerve plexus of sympathetic and or parasympathetic axons often containing ganglia, its function is to distribute both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres to an organ