Flashcards in Back, lymphatics and nerves Deck (83):
where is the spinous process of a vertebra?
it is the most posterior structure. It is a process that extends posteriorly and in the thoracic regions also inferiorly
what is the lamina of a vertebra?
the region between the spinous process and the transverse process
what are the transverse processes of a vertebra
the structures located on the lateral sides of the vertebral arch
what are the pedicles of a vertebra?
regions connecting the body and transverse processes
what is the vertebral foramen of a vertebra?
the channel in the centre of the vertebral arch
what are the articular facets of a vertebra?
flat surfaces on the vertebral arch that form articular fate joints between vertebrae
what is a intervertebral foramen?
the hole between the vertebral arches of adjacent vertebrae which spinal nerve roots pass through
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
how many thoracic
vertebrae are there?
how many lumbar vertebra are there?
how many sacral vertebra are there?
what is the name of C1?
what is the name of C2?
what is the process on C1 that connects C1 and C2 together?
what is the name of C7?
what are the identifiable featurs of a cervical vertebra?
-contain foramen transversium in the transverse processes
-facets are on the transverse plane
what are the identifiable features of a thoraccic vertebra?
-articular facets on body and transverse process for rib attachment
-long spinous processes which point inferiorly
what are the identifiable features of a lumbar vertebra?
- large round body
- large rounded spinous process
what type of joint is found between vertebral bodies?
intervertebral disc- symphysis
what type of joint are articular facets?
what is the outer part of the intervertebral disc called?
what is the inner part of the intervertebral disc called?
what is a herniated "slipped" disc?
when damage to the anulus fibrosis causes the nucleus pulposis to protrudes posteriolaterally through and put pressure on the spinal nerve root
where is the supraspinous ligament found?
posterior of vertebrae, connecting all the spinous processed posteriorly
where is the ligamentum flavum found?
connecting the laminae of adjacent vertebrae
where is the interspinous ligament located?
connecting the superior and inferior parts of adjacent spinous processes
where is the anterior longitudinal ligament located?
connecting the anterior of the bodies
where is the posterior longitudinal ligament located?
the posterior of the bodies
what are the two kyphoses of the spine?
whar are the two lordoses of the spine?
how is the cervical lordosis formed?
in infancy when a baby begins to lift its head up
how is the lumbar lordosis formed?
when a child begins to walk
what is scoliosis?
when the spine bends abnormally laterally
In what plane are the facets of cervical vertebrae positioned and what movement does this allow?
on the transverse plane. allows movement in the transverse plane (rotation)
In what plane are the facets of thoracic vertebrae positioned and what movement does this allow?
on the coronal plane, this allows movement in the coronal plane (lateral flexion) however this movement is very restricted
In what plane are the facets of lumbar vertebrae positioned and what movement does this allow?
on the sagittal plane, this allows movement in the sagittal plane (flexion and extension)
which movements are permitted in the cervical region?
rotation, flexion, extension, lateral flexion and extension
which movements are permitted in the thoracic region?
very restricted movement but a little lateral flexion
which movements are permitted in the lumbar region?
flexion, extension, rotation, lateral flexion
where are the erector spinae muscles situated?
posteriorly between the spinous processes and the transverse processes
which other muscles apart from erector spinae act on the vertebral colomn?
sternoceidomastoid and the anterior muscles of the abdominal walls (obliques, rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis)
at what vertebral level is the spine of the scapula?
At what vertebral level is the inferior angle of the scapula?
at what vertebral level is the summit of the iliac crest?
at what vertebral level is the sternal angle?
at what vertebral level is the xiphistrenal joint?
between which vertebrae is a lumbar puncture performed on an adult?
between L3 and L4
between which vertebrae is a lumbar puncture performed on a child?
between L4 and L5
at what spinal level does the spinal cord end in an adult ?
at what spinal level does the spinal cord end in an child?
which organs and tissues are not lymphatically drained?
cartilage, eyes, inner ears, brain and spinal cord
describe the structure of a lymph node?
outer portion is called the cortex, it contains B-lymphocytes. In the cortex there are follicles that contain germinal centres these are the site of B cell proliferation and also house B cells.
moving further in we come to the paracortex this is were the T lymphocytes are found
In the centre is the medulla, this is the site of macrophages.
what is a sentinal node?
the first lymph node the lymph passes through after leaving a structure. In cancer the sentinal node is the first node that a cancer spreads
where is the thoracic duct found?
between the azygos vein and the aorta on the right side of the posterior thoracic wall.
where does the thoracic duct cross the vertebral column from the right to the left side?
which duct drain the right upper quadrant of the body?
right lymphatic duct
which duct drains the upper left quadrant and the two lower quadrants?
the thoracic duct
what is the structure called where the thoracic duct begins and what is the spinal level of this structure?
which vein does the thoracic duct drain into?
the left subclavian vein
where does the spinal cord begin and end in adults?
begins at the occipital bone and extends down to the gap between L1 and L2
what is the structure called at the distal end of the spinal cord?
what connects the spinal cord to the coccyx?
a fibrous extension called the filum terminale
why are there enlargments of the spinal cord between C5-T1 and L1-S4?
these are the areas whose spinal roots form the nerve plexises so they contain more grey matter
what is the cauda equina
the nerves of L2 to the coccyx that extend from the conus medullaris
what type of nerve impulses are associated with the lateral horn of the spinal cord?
name the three layers of the meninges?
dura mater, archnoid mater and pia mater
what is the primary function of the meninges?
cushion and protect the central nervous system
to which spinal level does the dura mater extend?
to which spinal level does the arachnoid mater extend?
where is the CSF located?
the subarachnoid space
between which structures is the spinal epidural space found?
between the spinal dura and the periosteum covering the vertebral bodies
what structure of blood vessels drains the vertebrae and the spinal cord?
the vertebral venous plexus found in the fatty tissue within the epidural space
from which vertebral levels do sympathetic nerve fibres emerge?
what is the white ramus communicans?
it is the nerve carrying myelinated preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres from the spinal cord to the paravertebral (sympathetic) chain
what is the grey ramus communicans?
it is the nerve carrying unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres from the paravertebral (sympathetic) chain to the mixed spinal nerve carrying signals to the effector
what is a splanchnic nerve?
a nerve that innervates a organs of the abdomen with autonomic fibres, if the nerve is thoracic the fibres are sympathetic, if it is pelvic it is parasympathetic.
between which spinal levels do thoracic splanchnic nerves originate?
where do planchnic nerves synapse?
they run straight through the paravertebral chain and synapse in pre-aortic ganglia
which spinal cord segments give rise to parasympathetic nerves?
some cranial nerves and S2-S4
what kind of autonomic nerves are found in the splanchnic nerves from T6-T12?
where do the splanchnic parasympathetic nerves originate?
what are the large autonomic nerve plexuses?
cardiac, pulmonary, coeliac, superior hypogastric and inferiorhypogastric(pelvic)