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Flashcards in Muscles and Nerves Deck (46)
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1

Appendicular muscles

muscles found attached to just to bones of the limbs or to bones of the limbs and axial skeleton.

2

Axial muscles

muscles just joined to the axial skeleton

3

origin of a muscle

the proximal /superior/medial attachment of muscles

4

insertion of a muscle

the distal/inferior/lateral attachment of muscles

5

aponeurosis

anterior tendons of the abdominal oblique muscles, these tendons and flat, thin and broad.

6

abdominal oblique muscles

muscles in the abdomen, there are three layers of them and they are arranged with muscle fibres at 90 degrees to each other

7

Biceps Brachii attachments

attaches to bones at 4 places has two heads at proximal end of muscle (hence its name BI (two)-ceps(heads)) that attach to the scapula.
the two distal attachments are to the radius and ulna

8

joints biceps brachii crosses

glenohumeral, elbow, proximal radioulnar joint

9

joints brachioradialis crosses

just elbow joint

10

joints triceps brachii crosses

elbow and glenohumeral

11

action of biceps brachii and triceps brachii at elbow

biceps- flexion
triceps- extension

12

what is a diaphragm

a muscle that crosses the median sagittal plane and has attach on either side. Largest is "the diaphragm".

13

action of the diaphragm

when it contracts it descends causing the thoracic volume to increase and the lungs to inflate, breath in. When it relaxes the thoracic volume decreases again and the lungs deflate, breath out.

14

supporting skeletal muscles

are found around joints to give support eg. the rotator cuff muscles around the shoulder.
they also work against gravity. eg. the intrinsic muscles of the back

15

arrangement of fibres in the deltoid

split into anterior, middle and posterior fibres

16

function of anterior fibres in deltoid

contraction causes flexion of shoulder joint

17

function of posterior fibres in deltoid

contraction extension of shoulder joint

18

function of middle fibres in deltoid

contraction causes abduction of the shoulder joint.

19

co-operative muscle action

-antagonistic pairs
-synergists
-fixator/stabilising muscles

20

antagonistic pairs

a flexor will work with an extensor so that one contracts the other relaxes to allow a movement at the joint. in flexion the flexor will contract and the extensor will relax and for extension it the other way around.

21

synergists

a muscle that carries out the same action as the agonist to stabilize muscle movements.

22

Fixator/stabilising muscles

stabilize the joint which they are attached to, prevents dislocation.

23

brachialis and brachioradialis as synergists

act as synergists to stabilize the action of biceps brachii, flexion.

24

muscle testing

muscles are assessed bilaterally in pairs for comparison. This can help diagnose muscle and nerve injuries

25

muscle atrophy

wasting away of muscle, caused by a disorder of a muscle or its innervation. Can also be caused by muscle immobilisation eg. by long period in plaster cast

26

ways in which muscles can be compartmentalised

1. deep fascial intermuscular septa
2. nerve innervation, common nerve supply within a compartment
3. common action of muscles

27

brachial plexus

matrix of nerves from the C5-T1 spinal nerve roots. Innervates the arm and forearm muscles

28

Lumbosacral plexus

matrix of nerves from the L1-S4 spinal roots. Innervates the thigh and leg muscles.

29

muscle nomenclature, ways in which muscles can be named

1. location eg. serratus anterior and posterior
2. action eg. extensor digitorum
3. direction of muscle fibres eg. oblique muscles
4. number of heads eg. biceps brachii
5 points of attachment eg. sternocleidomastoid muscle
6. shape eg. deltoid
7. size eg. pectoralis major and minor

30

observations when looking at a micrograph slide of skeletal muscle

1. presence of cross striations
2. normal nuclear size and shape
3. multinucleate
4. absence of branching fibres

31

observations when looking at a micrograph slide of cardiac muscle

1. presence of cross striations
2. large round nuclei
3. mononucleate
4. presence of branching fibres

32

observations when looking at a micrograph slide of smooth muscle

1. absence of cross striations
2. elongated nuclei
3. mononucleate
4. absence of branching fibres

33

intervertebral foramen

hole in vertebrae through which a mixed spinal nerve exits.

34

sensory dorsal root

structure in which somatic sensory nerves enter the spinal cord

35

motor ventral root

structure in which somatic motor nerves exit the spinal cord.

36

dorsal ramus

contains both sensory and motor nerve fibres that innervate the skeletal muscle, skin and bones of the posterior side of the trunk only.

37

ventral ramus

contains both sensory and motor nerves that innervates anteriolateral muscles, skin and bone.

38

cutaneous nerve

nerves that supply the skin over muscles but are not specific to one spinal level.

39

dermatomes

areas of skin that are supplied by a single spinal level

40

dermatome of T2

sternal angle

41

dermatome of T4

nipples

42

dermatome of T10

umbilicus

43

dermatome of L1

inguinal region

44

endoneurium

layer of delicate connective tissue that surrounds the myelin sheath of nerve fibres

45

perineurium

protective sheath that surrounds a fascicle (bundle) of nerve fibres

46

epineurium

protective sheath that surrounds the bundles of fascicles, surrounds the entire nerve.