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Flashcards in Bones and Joints Deck (61)
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1

superior

nearer to head

2

inferior

nearer to feet

3

anterior

nearer to front

4

posterior

nearer to back

5

Medial

nearer to midsagittal plane

6

proximal

nearer to trunk

7

distal

further away from the trunk

8

lateral

further away from the midsagittal plane

9

superficial

nearer to surface

10

deep

further from skin

11

palmar

closer to the palm of the hand

12

plantar

nearer to the sole of the foot

13

dorsal

nearer to posterior of body

14

ventral

nearer to anterior of body

15

cranial

nearer to head

16

rostral

nearer to head

17

caudal

nearer to feet

18

ipsilateral

same side of the body/structure

19

contralateral

different side of body/ structure

20

leg

lower limb, below the knee

21

thigh

lower limb, above the knee

22

cavities of the body

-cranial
-thoracic
-abdominal
-pelvic
-spinal

23

mastoid process of the skull

bony prominence behind the ear

24

sternal angle

strenomanubrial joint

25

xiphoid process

inferior part of sternum

26

medial and lateral humeral epicondyles

bony prominences immediately above the elbow joint

27

olecranon process

elbow

28

iliac crest

highest point of the hip bone

29

anterior superior iliac spine

sharp prominence at anterior end of iliac crest

30

pubic symphysis

joint between two hip bones anteriorly

31

greater trochanter of femur

large bony protuberance at proximal end

32

patella

knee cap

33

anterior border of tibia

shin

34

medial and lateral malleolus

bony prominence on each side of the ankle

35

gastrulation

process during embryonic development in which a single layered blastula is reorganised into a trilaminar (three layered) structure known as a gastrula.

36

ectoderm

gives rise to nervous tissue, epidermis and smooth muscle.

37

endoderm

gives rise to the GI tract and the respiratory respiratory.

38

mesoderm

gives rise to the dermis, bone, cartilage and skeletal muscle and smooth muscle

39

hyaline cartilage appearance under microscope

few cells amongst lots of matrix. Cells (chondrocytes) in lacunae.

40

spongy bone appearance under microscope

matrix of bone with marrow in between, adipocytes in marrow.

41

compact bone appearance under microscope

osteons present, these contain osteocytes in a ring structure around a haversian canal.

42

appositional growth

increase in width of a bone carried out by the periosteum

43

interstitial growth

increase in the length of a bone carried out by the epiphyseal growth plate

44

5 types of bone

1. flat eg. scapula
2. long eg. femur
3. short eg. carpals and tarsals
4. irregular eg. vertabrae
5. sesamoid eg. patella

45

sesamoid bone function

protect tendon from wear

46

condyle

smooth prominence

47

epicondyle

process above conyles where ligaments and endons attach

48

tuberosity/tubercle

rough prominence, site of attachment for ligaments

49

fossa

shallow depression

50

foramen

hole in bone through which nerves and blood vessels

51

spine

sharp projection, site of tendon attachment

52

intramembanous ossification

bone formation whereby the initial foetal membrane is replaced by bone

53

endochondral ossification

hyaline cartilage model is replaced by bone

54

examples of bones formed by intramembranous ossification

flat bones of the skull, jaw, face, centre of the clavicle, sternum

55

examples of bones formed by endochondral
ossification

long bones, ribs, vertebrae

56

symphysis

secondary cartilaginous joint, bone- hyaline cartilage-fibrous cartilage- hyaline cartilage- bone.

57

synchondrosis

primary cartilaginous joint, eg. costochondral joint and epiphyseal growth plate

58

fibrous joint

joint connected by dense connective tissue, mainly collagen. eg. sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses

59

synovial joint characteristics

1. an outer fibrous capsule
2. an inner synovial membrane
3. an internal joint space filled with synovial fluid
4. supporting ligaments located around the joint

60

anatomical variation

difference in anatomical structures that is not regarded as a disease

61

anatomical anomaly

structural abnormality or marked deviation from the normal standard i.e. anything that is structurally unusual, irregular or contrary to a general rule.