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Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (51)
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1

Prokaryotic cells do not have what?

membrane-enclosed organelles

2

What are the 3 bacterial shapes?

Spherical (cocci)
Rod shaped (bacilli
Spiral

3

What are the three spherical categories?

diplococcus (cells grouped in 2)
streptococcus (long chains)
staphylococcus (grape clusters)

4

What are the 2 spiral categories?

Rigid helix (spirillum)
Flexible helix (spirochete)

5

bacteria cell walls are composed of what?

peptidoglycan

6

Some bacteria have a _____ surrounding the cell wall.

capsule

7

Describe gram-positive bacteria:

absorb and retain crystal violet stain
walls very thick
consist mainly of peptidoglycan
stain purplish-brown

8

Describe gram-negative bacteria:

don't retain a stain when rinsed with alcohol
wals have a thin peptidoglycan layer
have a outer membrane
stain pink

9

Most prokaryotes have a capsule or___

slime layer

10

The outer covering of some prokaryotes may protect the cell against what?

phagocytosis

11

Bacteria also use____to attach to surfaces such as rocks and teeth.

capsule

12

Bacteria Pili

protein structures extending from cell
help bacteria adhere to one another or other surfaces

13

Prokaryotes move by means of a ____.

flagella

14

List the 3 parts of bacteria flagella:

basal body
hook
single filament

15

Flagellum act like a_____

propeller

16

Prokaryote Genes consist of:

1 circular DNA molecule in nuclear area
1 or more plasmids (circular DNA fragments)

17

What happens in binary fission?

cell divides, forming 2 cells

18

What is the most common form of reproduction in bacteria?

binary fision

19

Under ideal conditions, a bacterium may divide every ______.

20 minutes

20

Budding

bud forms, separates from mother cell

21

Fragmentation

walls form inside cell and then separates into several cells

22

Transformation

bacterial cell takes in DNA fragments released by a dead bacterium and than incorporates its DNA into its

23

Transduction

phage carries bacterial DNA from one bacterial cell into another

24

Conjugation

two cells of different mating types exchange genetic mateerial

25

Endospores

extremely durable cells that remain dormant

26

Archae do not form____

endospores

27

What type of environments do endospores form in?

very dry, hot
frozen
food scarce

28

Some bacterial endospores are disease causing, such as

Bacillus anthracius (anthrax)
Clostridium tetani (tetanus)

29

Biofilms

dense films formed by bacteria living in watery enviroments

30

Biofilms attache to______surfaces

solid