Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (68)
Biological diversity (biodiversity):
variety of living organisms considered at 3 levels: genetic, species, and ecosystem
scientific study of the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships
science of naming, describing, and classifying organisms
arranging organisms into groups based on similarities that reflect evolutionary relationships among lineages
Who made the binomial system of nomenclature?
Binomial system of nomenclature:
gives animals an unique two word name. first word genus. second word species
List the taxonomic levels
What kingdom did Ernest Haeckel find in 1866?
Protista (included bacteria and other microorganisms)
Who in 1969 proposed a five-kingdom classification based on cell structure and mode of nutrition?
What kingdoms did R.H. Whittaker add?
Fungi- mushrooms, molds, and yeasts
In 1970 Carl Woese discovered that prokaryotes could be divided into 2 kingdoms. What were they?
Many biologists have done away with Kingdom Protista and replaced it with five "supergroups" based on molecular data. what are the supergroups?
There are three domains. What are they?
group of organisms that share characters inherited from a "common ancestor"
organisms are grouped into clades based on evolutionary relationships
A _______ is a type of phylogenetic tree in which each branch represents a clade.
Vertical Gene Transfer
when genes are transmitted from parent to offspring within the same species
Horizontal (lateral) gene transfer
gene swapping between organisms in one taxon and unrelated organism in another taxon
Ex. of horizontal gene transfer.
exchange of DNA among different populations or species of bacteria
one organism living inside the cell of another. can cause horizontal gene transfer to occur
evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor
structures derived from a recent common ancestor
Identifying homologous traits is important in inferring_________.
similar structures sometimes evolve when unrelated species adapt to similar environmental conditions (ex. sharks and dolphins)