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1

Biological diversity (biodiversity):

variety of living organisms considered at 3 levels: genetic, species, and ecosystem

2

Systematics:

scientific study of the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary relationships

3

Taxonomy:

science of naming, describing, and classifying organisms

4

Classifications:

arranging organisms into groups based on similarities that reflect evolutionary relationships among lineages

5

Who made the binomial system of nomenclature?

Carolus Linnaeus

6

Binomial system of nomenclature:

gives animals an unique two word name. first word genus. second word species

7

List the taxonomic levels

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

8

What kingdom did Ernest Haeckel find in 1866?

Protista (included bacteria and other microorganisms)

9

Who in 1969 proposed a five-kingdom classification based on cell structure and mode of nutrition?

R.H. Whittaker

10

What kingdoms did R.H. Whittaker add?

Fungi- mushrooms, molds, and yeasts
Prokaryotae- bacteria

11

In 1970 Carl Woese discovered that prokaryotes could be divided into 2 kingdoms. What were they?

Bacteria
Archae

12

Many biologists have done away with Kingdom Protista and replaced it with five "supergroups" based on molecular data. what are the supergroups?

Excavates
Chromalveolates
Rhizarians
Archaeplastids
Unikonts

13

List Excavates:

diplomonads
parabasalids
euglenoids
trypanosomes

14

List Chromalveolates:

Dinoflagellates
Ciliates
Apicomplexans
water molds
diatoms
brown algae
golden algae

15

List Rhizarians:

forams
actinopods

16

List Archaeplastids:

Red Algae
Green Algae

17

List Unikonts:

amoebozoa
choanoflagellates

18

There are three domains. What are they?

Archae
Bacteria
Eukarya

19

Define clade:

group of organisms that share characters inherited from a "common ancestor"

20

Define PhyloCode:

organisms are grouped into clades based on evolutionary relationships

21

A _______ is a type of phylogenetic tree in which each branch represents a clade.

cladogram

22

Vertical Gene Transfer

when genes are transmitted from parent to offspring within the same species

23

Horizontal (lateral) gene transfer

gene swapping between organisms in one taxon and unrelated organism in another taxon

24

Ex. of horizontal gene transfer.

exchange of DNA among different populations or species of bacteria

25

Endosymbiosis

one organism living inside the cell of another. can cause horizontal gene transfer to occur

26

Phylogengy

evolutionary history of a group of organisms from a common ancestor

27

Homologous traits

structures derived from a recent common ancestor

28

Identifying homologous traits is important in inferring_________.

Phylogeny

29

Convergant Evolution

similar structures sometimes evolve when unrelated species adapt to similar environmental conditions (ex. sharks and dolphins)

30

Reversal

trait revers to its ancestral state