Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (55):
What shape is E. Coli?
What is the term for flagella used in naming bacteria?
What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella?
What piece anchors the flagella in the membrane? What does it do?
The basal unit
Generates a proton gradient between the membrane and the periplasmic space to cause rotation
What is the whip like portion of the flagella called?
What is the bacterial cell wall made of?
What makes a bacteria gram +? What color does it stain?
Thick peptidogylcan layer which stains dark purple
What makes a bacteria gram -? What color does it stain?
Additional outer membrane outside of a thinner peptidoglycan layer. Thus they stain poorly--a light pink.
What is a mesophile?
A bacteria that likes middle temperatures, non-extreme
What is a thermophile?
Bacteria that loves very hot temps
What is a psychrophile?
Bacteria that loves cold temps
What is an obligate aerobe?
Cannot survive in the absence of oxygen
What is a facultative anaerobe?
Can use oxygen OR do fermentation, quite likes oxygen actually
What is a tolerant anaerobe?
An anaerobe that is not killed by oxygen, but cannot use oxygen to survive. Instead ferments
What is an obligate anaerobe?
Dies in the presence of oxygen
What does auxotroph mean?
"Can't do or make something" or if its a sugar, cant metabolize that sugar
What is the growth cycle via binary fission?
Lag -> Log -> stationary -> death
Does not increase genetic diversity, but can greatly increase colony size
What is an F+ bacterium?
A bacterium that contains an (F) plasmid. Considered a "male" bacterium
What is an F- bacterium?
A bacterium lacking a plasmid. Considered a "female" bacterium
How does bacterial conjugation occur?
A conjugation bridge, aka a "sex pilus" connects an F+ bacterium and an F- bacterium. The plasmid is replicated in the male and a copy is sent via the bridge to the female.
The female cell now has more genetic diversity
What things should you know about fungi?
1. Eukaryotes (think yeast!)
2. Cell wall is chitin
3. Reproduce via vegetation, asexual spores, or sexual spores
4. Adults are haploid
5. Hierarchy = hyphae -> mycelium -> thallus
Thallus is the largest, visible fungus e.g. hunk of bread mold
Although most proteins start AND finish translation in the cytoplasm, what are the 4 types that finish in the rough ER?
1. Secreted protein
2. Transmembrane proteins
3. Lysosomal proteins
4. ER/Golgi resident proteins
How do proteins that finish translation in the ER (e.g. secreted proteins and membrane bound proteins) know how to
A signal sequence is translated in the first few amino acids.
*note, the signal is actually removed at the end of translation).
A signal can be ANYWHERE in the amino acid sequence and is not removed during translation.
Where do the signal sequences of transmembrane proteins end up?
In the hydrophobic/nonpolar part of the PM (the tails)
Can proteins flip in the PM?
What is the Vant Hoff factor?
The number of ions a molecule splits into. e.g. NaCl would be 2
CaCl2 would be 3
What are colligative properties?
Properties that depend on the NUMBER of solute particles (Vant Hoff factor) but NOT their identity. Properties affected:
1. Freezing point depression
2. Vapor point depression
3. Boiling point elevation
4. Osmotic pressure increase
What is the equation for freezing point depression?
FP depression = (delta)T = Kf x i x m
where Kf = a solvent-dependent constant
i = Vant Hoff factor
m = molarity
Note, in physiological systems, Kf always = 1.8
What effect does an increase in particle number/solutes have on vapor pressure?
What effect does an increase in particle number/solutes have on freezing temperature?
What effect does an increase in particle number/solutes have on the boiling point?
What is the equation for boiling point elevation?
BP elevation = (delta)T = Kb x i x m
where Kb = a solvent-dependent constant
i = Vant Hoff factor
m = molarity
Note, in physiological systems, Kb always = 0.5
Remember that osmosis is a ________ property.
Colligative (based on particle NUMBER)
What does the Na/K ATPase do?
Pumps 3 Na out of the cell and 2 K into the cell
How is glucose transported across intestinal cells into the bloodstream?
What cellular roles do microtubules play?
cilia and flagella
What cellular roles do microfilaments play?
What cellular roles do intermediate filaments play?
What are the phases of the cell cycle?
G1 -> S -> G2 -> M
What is the most heavily regulated phase/point in the cell cycle?
G1/S phase junction
What are the phases in mitosis?
Prophase -> Metaphase -> Anaphase -> Telophase
During mitosis, what is the name of the two homologous chromosomes joined at the centromere?
What is cytokinesis?
Cell pinching and separation conducted by actin filaments at the end of anaphase
At what stage are cells haploid?
At the end of meiosis I
What is a polymorphic trait?
A trait with several varieties. e.g. hair color
What is a polygenic trait?
A trait that is coded for by multiple genes (pretty much all traits are polygenic!)
What is incomplete dominance?
Blending of two dominant traits. e.g. pink
What is codominance?
2 alleles are expressed simultaneously but independently. eg blood type
What is a test cross?
A cross between a homozygous recessive and an unknown dominant.
What are linked genes?
Genes that are close together on the same chromosome might NOT sort indepdently.
Crossing over is more likely to occur with genes that are __________.
What is the expected ratio for a double heterozygote cross? (for 2 genes)
What are the 2 Hardy-Weinberg equations?
Allele frequency = p + q = 1
Genotype frequency = p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
How many generations does it take to return to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
ONE! (assuming all the HW conditions are met)