Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (51):
What does the primary follicle include?
Where does sperm production occur?
Seminiferous tubules within the testes
What do sustenacular cells make?
ABP - androgen binding protein
What is the order of sperm development?
Spermatogonia -> primary spermatocytes -> spermatid
What hormone acts to positively regulate sustenacular cells and spermatogonia?
Is a primary spermatocyte haploid or diploid?
Is a secondary spermatocyte haploid or diploid?
What number of sperm cells will come from 1 spermatogonia
1 primary spermatocyte turns into 2 secondary spermatocytes which turns into 4 spermatids
What is the path of sperm from testes to ejaculation?
Epididymis (in testes) -> vas deferens -> urethra
What is the job of the vas deferens?
Peristalsis for ejaculation
What is semen composed of? And what glands/organs participate?
Nutritious (fructose) alkaline fluid.
1. Seminal vesicles (fructose) - 60% of volume
2. Prostate (clotting factor) - 35%
3. Bulbourethral glands (highly alkaline mucus) - 4%
4. Sperm - 1%
Arousal is under ________ control.
Orgasm is under ________ control.
What are the name of the ducts that direct a fetus to one gender or another?
Male = Wolffian duct
Female = Mullerian duct
What is the "default" gender? How is the other formed in light of this?
Default = Mullerian (female)
a Y chromosome will form testes -> make testosterone and mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) -> male development
What are vestibular glands?
Aka bartholin glands; similar to bulbourethral glands in males, help lubricate and raise the pH of the acidic vagina
What is the pH of the vagina?
What stage are eggs halted at birth?
What stage egg is ovulated? What else is formed at this point?
First polar body
Meiosis ______ does not finish unless fertilization occurs. What else is formed from fertilization?
The second polar body
Estrogen and progesterone provide negative feedback on what?
Hypothalamus to inhibit release of GnRH and anterior pituitary to inhibit release of FSH and LH
What is the follicular phase? What is the other name for his phase?
The follicle is building in response to FSH during days 1-13 of the menstrual cycle
This is also the proliferative phase, as the lining of the endometrium builds. Estrogen levels high
What causes ovulation?
What is ovulated? What is left behind/removed?
A secondary oocyte
The theca cells don't get ovulated, but instead hang back and turn into the corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum secrete?
Progesterone and a small amount of estrogen
What is the secretory phase?
The endometrium "enhances" waiting for implantation
Estrogen levels are stable; progesterone levels high
The increasing release of _______ during the _______ phase grows the endometrial lining.
estrogen by the follicle during the proliferative phase
What causes menstruation?
The drop in estrogen and progesterone if fertilization does not occur
How do birth control pills work?
They are composed of estrogen and progesterone which negatively feedback inhibit on FSH and LH, so no follicle is ever matured or ovulated.
How does the egg block polyspermy?
1. Depolarization of the egg (immediate)
2. Cortical reaction: zona pellucida hardens and separates from the cell surface due to an influx of Ca (within a few minutes)
What is the new name for the granulosa cells in the ovulated egg?
What part of the sperm pierces the egg?
What is the progress of cell growth immediately after fertilization?
1. Dikaryon (2 nuceli)
2. Oocyte meiosis II
5. 2-cell stage
What takes over progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum and when?
Placenta around 3 months
What organs do "adult" stem cells from?
Intestine, skin, bone marrow
Cannot become any cell type but can be INDUCED to become any cell type (to undifferentiate).
What is the difference between determination and differentiation?
Determination targets a cell towards a path but the cell does not yet look like a mature cell.
Differentiation is the physical changes to a cell that turn it into the final cell type.
What is the difference between totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent (adult) stem cells??
Totipotent can become ANY cell type in AND OUTSIDE of the body (e.g. extra-embryonic things)
Pluripotent can become ANY cell type in the BODY
Multipotent (adult) stem cells can become any cell type in their lineage (e.g. blood stem cell can make any type of blood cell)
What happens in gastrulation?
The inner cell mass differentiates into the 3 germ layers.
What does the endoderm form?
The inner lining of organs and glands. E.g. inner lining of bladder, intestine, respiratory system, etc.
What does the mesoderm form?
Middle organs. Bone, muscles, heart, kidney, blood vessels, etc.
What does the ectoderm form?
The outer coverings of the body. Skin, hair, finger nails, and *WEIRDLY* the NERVOUS SYSTEM
What are the three triggers of contractions/labor?
1. Placenta deteriorates -> progesterone and estrogen fall
2. uterus is stretched
3. baby's head stretches cervix which tells hypothalamus to trigger the posterior pituitary to release oxytocin
What things happen in babies shortly after birth?
1. Close PDA (PA -> Aorta shunt)
2. Close foramen ovale (atrial septa hole)
3. Close umbilical arteries and veins (arteries close first)
What does baby nursing cause the release of? What does that hormone do?
Baby nursing causes release of prolactin and oxytocin.
Prolactin causes the mom to MAKE milk
Oxytocin causes the mom to EJECT milk
What is the luteal phase?
Days 14-28. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone, ovulated egg waits to be fertilized.
hcG is like which hormone? What does it do?
Like LH because it supports maintenance of the corpus luteum once fertilization has occurred.
In which phase of the menstrual cycle does most of the length variation occur?
What triggers the LH surge just before ovulation?
Rising estrogen levels (from the follicle) reaching a certain threshold.
What do the interstitial (aka Leydig) cells do?
Secrete testosterone, which inhibits release of LH and FSH.
What do sertoli (sustenacular) cells do?
Secrete inhibin, which decreases FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary