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MCAT - Bio/Biochem > Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (51):
1

What does the primary follicle include?

Granulosa cells
Theca cells
Zona pellucida

2

Where does sperm production occur?

Seminiferous tubules within the testes

3

What do sustenacular cells make?

ABP - androgen binding protein

4

What is the order of sperm development?

Spermatogonia -> primary spermatocytes -> spermatid

5

What hormone acts to positively regulate sustenacular cells and spermatogonia?

FSH

6

Is a primary spermatocyte haploid or diploid?

diploid

7

Is a secondary spermatocyte haploid or diploid?

haploid

8

What number of sperm cells will come from 1 spermatogonia

1 primary spermatocyte turns into 2 secondary spermatocytes which turns into 4 spermatids

9

What is the path of sperm from testes to ejaculation?

Epididymis (in testes) -> vas deferens -> urethra

10

What is the job of the vas deferens?

Peristalsis for ejaculation

11

What is semen composed of? And what glands/organs participate?

Nutritious (fructose) alkaline fluid.

1. Seminal vesicles (fructose) - 60% of volume

2. Prostate (clotting factor) - 35%

3. Bulbourethral glands (highly alkaline mucus) - 4%

4. Sperm - 1%

12

Arousal is under ________ control.

Parasympathetic

13

Orgasm is under ________ control.

sympathetic

14

What are the name of the ducts that direct a fetus to one gender or another?

Male = Wolffian duct
Female = Mullerian duct

15

What is the "default" gender? How is the other formed in light of this?

Default = Mullerian (female)

a Y chromosome will form testes -> make testosterone and mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) -> male development

16

What are vestibular glands?

Aka bartholin glands; similar to bulbourethral glands in males, help lubricate and raise the pH of the acidic vagina

17

What is the pH of the vagina?

acidic

18

What stage are eggs halted at birth?

Primary oocyte

19

What stage egg is ovulated? What else is formed at this point?

Secondary oocyte

First polar body

20

Meiosis ______ does not finish unless fertilization occurs. What else is formed from fertilization?

II

The second polar body

21

Estrogen and progesterone provide negative feedback on what?

Hypothalamus to inhibit release of GnRH and anterior pituitary to inhibit release of FSH and LH

22

What is the follicular phase? What is the other name for his phase?

The follicle is building in response to FSH during days 1-13 of the menstrual cycle

Secretes: estrogen

This is also the proliferative phase, as the lining of the endometrium builds. Estrogen levels high

23

What causes ovulation?

LH surge

24

What is ovulated? What is left behind/removed?

A secondary oocyte

The theca cells don't get ovulated, but instead hang back and turn into the corpus luteum

25

What does the corpus luteum secrete?

Progesterone and a small amount of estrogen

+HcG

26

What is the secretory phase?

Days 15-28

The endometrium "enhances" waiting for implantation

Estrogen levels are stable; progesterone levels high

27

The increasing release of _______ during the _______ phase grows the endometrial lining.

estrogen by the follicle during the proliferative phase

28

What causes menstruation?

The drop in estrogen and progesterone if fertilization does not occur

29

How do birth control pills work?

They are composed of estrogen and progesterone which negatively feedback inhibit on FSH and LH, so no follicle is ever matured or ovulated.

30

How does the egg block polyspermy?

1. Depolarization of the egg (immediate)
2. Cortical reaction: zona pellucida hardens and separates from the cell surface due to an influx of Ca (within a few minutes)

31

What is the new name for the granulosa cells in the ovulated egg?

Corona radiata

32

What part of the sperm pierces the egg?

Acrosome

33

What is the progress of cell growth immediately after fertilization?

1. Dikaryon (2 nuceli)
2. Oocyte meiosis II
3. Syngamy
4. Zygote
5. 2-cell stage
6. Morula
7. Blastula
8. Trophoblast

34

What takes over progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum and when?

Placenta around 3 months

35

What organs do "adult" stem cells from?

Intestine, skin, bone marrow

Cannot become any cell type but can be INDUCED to become any cell type (to undifferentiate).

36

What is the difference between determination and differentiation?

Determination targets a cell towards a path but the cell does not yet look like a mature cell.

Differentiation is the physical changes to a cell that turn it into the final cell type.

37

What is the difference between totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent (adult) stem cells??

Totipotent can become ANY cell type in AND OUTSIDE of the body (e.g. extra-embryonic things)

Pluripotent can become ANY cell type in the BODY

Multipotent (adult) stem cells can become any cell type in their lineage (e.g. blood stem cell can make any type of blood cell)

38

What happens in gastrulation?

The inner cell mass differentiates into the 3 germ layers.

39

What does the endoderm form?

The inner lining of organs and glands. E.g. inner lining of bladder, intestine, respiratory system, etc.

40

What does the mesoderm form?

Middle organs. Bone, muscles, heart, kidney, blood vessels, etc.

41

What does the ectoderm form?

The outer coverings of the body. Skin, hair, finger nails, and *WEIRDLY* the NERVOUS SYSTEM

42

What are the three triggers of contractions/labor?

1. Placenta deteriorates -> progesterone and estrogen fall
2. uterus is stretched
3. baby's head stretches cervix which tells hypothalamus to trigger the posterior pituitary to release oxytocin

43

What things happen in babies shortly after birth?

1. Close PDA (PA -> Aorta shunt)
2. Close foramen ovale (atrial septa hole)
3. Close umbilical arteries and veins (arteries close first)

44

What does baby nursing cause the release of? What does that hormone do?

Baby nursing causes release of prolactin and oxytocin.
Prolactin causes the mom to MAKE milk
Oxytocin causes the mom to EJECT milk

45

What is the luteal phase?

Days 14-28. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone, ovulated egg waits to be fertilized.

46

hcG is like which hormone? What does it do?

Like LH because it supports maintenance of the corpus luteum once fertilization has occurred.

47

In which phase of the menstrual cycle does most of the length variation occur?

Follicular phase

48

What triggers the LH surge just before ovulation?

Rising estrogen levels (from the follicle) reaching a certain threshold.

49

What do the interstitial (aka Leydig) cells do?

Secrete testosterone, which inhibits release of LH and FSH.

50

What do sertoli (sustenacular) cells do?

Secrete inhibin, which decreases FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary

51

Why are women who wish to breastfeed counseled against taking birth control pills that combine estrogen and progestins as the means to block ovulation?

High levels of estrogen and progesterone inhibit prolactin.