Flashcards in DNA replication/transcript/etc Deck (51):
In what ways is transcription similar to DNA replication? And different?
1. "start" site
2. 5'->3' direction
3. DNA template
1. "stop" site
2. No primer
3. No editing
During transcription, what is another name for the template strand?
is complementary to the new mRNA
During transcription, what is another name for the coding strand?
Sense strand. This is identical to the new mRNA except for U instead of T.
What can adenine turn into on tRNA?
What bases can inosine bind to?
A, U, or C
Wobble base pairing occurs when you have a _____ at the 3rd position
G, U, or I
Prokaryotic ribosome = ?
50s + 30s = 70s
Eukaryotic ribosome = ?
60s + 40s = 80s
How many ATP are needed to translate x # of amino acids?
# of amino acids x 4 = # of ATP needed
What mnemonic can you use to remember the DNA/protein/RNA assays?
S outhern D NA
N orthern R NA
W estern P rotein
What is a complex transposon?
IS element + one or more genes
What is a composite transposon?
2 IS elements and an intervening sequence.
What does +RNA mean?
mRNA (for viruses)
In what phase(s) of meiosis does non-disjunction occur?
Anaphase I and II
During meiosis, _________separate during meiosis I, and __________ (identical copies, except for recombination) separate during meiosis II
homologous chromosomes separate during meiosis I and sister chromatids separate during meiosis II
What is genetic drift?
Random change over time in the allele frequency within a population
What is a prezygotic barrier to hybridization?
Prevent the formation of a zygote
What is a postzygotic barrier to hybridization?
When a zygote forms and develops into a functional organism but is incapable of reproduction
Most of the voltage-gated sodium channels are concentrated where on the dendrite?
What do Schwann cells do?
Generate myelin sheath
What is the resting membrane potential of cells?
What maintains the resting potential?
(3 Na out, 2 K in) generates a negative internal charge
What is "threshold potential" and what happens when the cell reaches it?
Threshold potential is ~-50mV. When it is reached, voltage-gated Na channels open. (Na rushes in and the cell depolarizes).
How does the cell repolarize during an AP?
Na channels close and K channels open (K moves out of the cell)
How are neurotransmitters released at the end of an axon?
Voltage-gated Ca channels open, releasing the brakes on neuro-transmitter filled vesicles, allowing the vesicles to fuse with the membrane and dump the contents into the synaptic cleft.
What is an EPSP?
A mini-depolarization that does not reach threshold--ultimately has no effect.
What is spatial summation?
Summation of excitatory and inhibitory signals on a neuron
What is temporal summation?
Summation of an excitatory/inhibitory signal over some time period. The most frequently firing neuron will be "heard the most loudly."
What does the medulla do?
Basic vital functions
Special respiratory and digestive functions
What does the pons do?
What does the spinal cord do?
What does the cerebellum do?
Smooth and coordinate body movement
What does the midbrain do?
Visual and auditory startle reflexes
What does the limbic system do?
What is the diencephalon?
What does the epithalamus do?
Contains the pineal gland--secretes melatonin
What does the white matter contain? What does it do?
What is grey matter? What does it do?
Unmyelinated dendrites and somas.
What do the frontal lobes do/control?
What does the parietal lobe do?
General sensation - touch, taste, etc.
What does the temporal lobe do?
What neurotransmitter does the somatic nervous system use?
What neurotransmitters does the autonomic nervous system use?
What is unique about the default/resting state of rod and cone cells?
Na channels are OPEN, and thus they sit in a resting depolarized state.
How does light affect the vision cells?
Light causes release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter inhibiting the bipolar neuron, and allowing signal to brain.
What is another name for the ear drum?
What are the three bones of the inner ear?
Malleus -> incus -> stapes
What connects the bones of the ear to the cochlea?
The oval window
Waves in the _______ and __________ in the ________ cause the ___________ to vibrate.
Waves in the endolymph and perilymph in the cochlea cause the basilar membrane to vibrate
Where do the hair cells exist?
Above the basilar membrane and below the tectorial membrane. Vibration of the basilar membrane drags hair cells across the tectorial membrane causing them to bend.