Baron-Cohen et al. (1997) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Baron-Cohen et al. (1997) Deck (19)
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1
Q

What are the 3 difficulties people with autism experience?

A
  • Difficulty with social communication (e.g. may not be able to read facial expression)
  • Difficulty with social interaction (e.g. people with autism may not behave in a ‘socially normal’ way)
  • Difficulty with social imagination (e.g. may find it hard to predict what happens next or anticipate danger)
2
Q

What is Asperger syndrome?

A

It is very similar to Autism with the only difference being that people with Autism may have a delay in language development when younger.

3
Q

What were the main aims of Baron-Cohen’s study?

A

To develop an ‘advanced’ test of theory of mind in adults.

4
Q

Outline the participants in Group 1.

A
  • 16 people
  • Have either high-functioning autism (4 of them) or Asperger Syndrome (12 of them)
  • All normal intelligence
  • 13 males, 3 females
5
Q

Outline the participants in Group 2.

A
  • 50 ‘normal’ adults

- 25 males, 25 female

6
Q

Outline the participants in Group 3.

A
  • 10 adults
  • Have Tourette syndrome
  • 8 male, 2 female
7
Q

What were Baron-Cohen’s 2 hypotheses?

A
  • That participants with autism or AS would show significant impairment on the Eyes Task
  • That the normal females would perform significantly better on the Eyes Task than normal males
8
Q

What were the four tasks in Baron-Cohen’s study?

A
  • The Eyes Task
  • The Strange Stories Task
  • The Gender Recognition Task
  • The Basic Emotion Recognition Task
9
Q

How many photographs of eyes were participants shown and for how long each?

A

25 photographs for 3 seconds each.

10
Q

Describe the photographs of the eyes.

A
  • Taken from magazines
  • All in black and white
  • 15 x 10cm
  • Photographs of eye region
11
Q

What were participants asked when each pair of eyes was shown?

A

‘Which word best describes what this person is thinking or feeling?’ Underneath each photo was two opposite mental state terms (e.g. concerned and unconcerned)

12
Q

What were participants presented with in the Strange Stories task?

A

Presented with two examples of each of 12 story types including Lie, White lie, Joke, Figure of Speech, and Irony.

13
Q

What were participants asked to do after each story in the Strange Stories Task?

A

Asked to explain why the character said what he or she did.

14
Q

Outline the Gender Recognition Task.

A

Involved participants looking at same sets of eyes in Eyes Task but asked to identify the gender.

15
Q

Outline the Basic Emotion Recognition Task.

A

Participants shown photographs of whole faces. 6 faces were used and they displayed the 6 basic emotions: happy, sad, angry, afraid, disgust and surprise.

16
Q

Why was the Strange Stories Task included?

A

To validate the Eyes Task as a theory of mind task - if Eyes Task was testing theory of mind, results should correlate with Strange Stories Task.

17
Q

Why was the Gender Recognition and the Emotion Recognition Task included?

A

Used as controls to see if deficits on Eyes Task due to other factors.

18
Q

What were the mean scores on the Eyes Task?

A
  • Group 1 (Autism and Asperger) - 16.3/25
  • Group 2 (Control) - 20.3/25
  • Group 3 (Tourette) - 20.4/25
19
Q

What are the conclusions of Baron-Cohen’s study?

A

Baron-Cohen concluded that adults with autism or Asperger syndrome, despite being of normal or above average intelligence, have subtle deficits in their mind-reading ability.