Flashcards in Barron's words list 1 Deck (50):
a form of deductive reasoning that has a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
The following syllogism is often taught in logic courses: “All Xs are Ys, all Ys are Zs; therefore, all Xs are Zs.”
to vary; go in different directions from the same point
A famous line in American poetry is from Robert Frost's “The Road Not Taken”:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I–
I took the one less traveled by ....
Divergence is the noun.
Psychological tests show that there is a wide divergence between citizens of different countries in how much importance they place on the virtue of justice, on the one hand, and the virtue of mercy, on the other hand.
place side by side
To illustrate their case, opponents of functionalism juxtapose the products of modern architecture and those of classical architecture, such as the Parthenon, or those of medieval architecture, such as the Cathedral of Notre-Dame.
The noun juxtaposition means a side-by-side placement.
relating to the stars
A sidereal year is longer than a solar year by 20 minutes and 23 seconds.
to handle with a deceptive or evasive strategy; to use finesse, that is, refinement in performance
Engineers decided that the problem could be finessed by using lighter materials.
Innovation often requires challenges to orthodox thinking; for example, in the late 1960s, scientists from the U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency presented their idea of a vast network of computers to leading scientists from IBM and AT&T–companies with innumerable research breakthroughs to their credit–and were derided as impractical visionaries.
title or heading; category; established mode of procedure or conduct; protocol
The data from the experiment was so diverse that the scientist decided to design a new rubric to organize it.
impossible to penetrate; incapable of being affected.
example: we were amazed how Laura sit at the noisy party studying organic chemistry, impervious to the noise around her
quarrelsome; unruly; rebellious
In an effort to unify their divided party, its leaders decided to first placate the party's most fractious elements.
Microbiologists study Lilliputian organisms.
The members of the football team were bewildered by the presence of a female reporter in the locker room.
The state legislature voted to codify regulations governing banking fraud.
Codification is the noun.
The most influential codification of civil law was the Napoleonic Code in France, which became the paradigm for law in the non- English-speaking countries of Europe and had a generally civilizing influence on most of the countries in which it was enacted.
Codified is the adjective.
Common law is the system of laws that originated in England; it is based on court decisions and on customs rather than on codified written laws.
group of people united in political intrigue
The country's ruling junta consists of a general, an admiral, and the mayor of the capital city.
It took two hours for the princess' handmaidens to help her put on her splendid raiment for her coronation as queen.
article treating a subject systematically and thoroughly
The thesis of the philosopher's treatise is that reality is, ultimately, opaque to human understanding.
a creature that is half-man, half-beast with the horns and legs of a goat; it is a follower of Dionysos; a lecher
One of the best-known satyrs is Pan, the god of the woods in Greek mythology.
comparison of one thing with another using “like” or “as”
In his autobiographical book Chronicles, Volume 1, Bob Dylan uses two similes in succession to try to convey the experience of writing a song: “A song is like a dream, and you try to make it come true. They're like strange countries you have to enter.”
The president told the congressional representative he should stop repining over the lost opportunity and join the majority in exploring new ones.
the act of taking away; derogatory comment on a person's character
The writer responded in a letter to the critic's long list of detractions about his book.
mixture of writings on various subjects
The book is a fascinating miscellany collected from the writer's life work.
relating to the senses; operating through the senses
The American painter Georgia O'Keeffe is known especially for her sensuous paintings of plants and flowers and for her landscapes.
to include; incorporate
The philosopher described his work as an attempt to arrive at a final generalization that will subsume all previous generalizations about the nature of logic.
relating to exaggerated emotional behavior calculated for effect; theatrical arts or performances
Whenever the star of the movie does not get her way on the set, she flies into a histrionic fit.
The noun histrionics means emotional behavior done for effect.
“Cut the histrionics and tell me how you really feel,” the woman said to her angry husband.
to accumulate; grow by additions
Regulating the growth of large companies when they begin to become monopolistic is a difficult task for government in a capitalist country; if it limits monopolies too much, the nation's firms could become less competitive than foreign companies that enjoy the advantages accruing from greater monopolies.
trick; crafty stratagem; subterfuge
In July, 1999, a group of Christians from the United Kingdom traveled to various countries in which Crusaders had massacred people to apologize; however, many of the Moslems spurned this overture, believing it to be another Crusade in the form of a ruse.
charm to bring good luck and avert misfortune
The soldier's mother gave him a talisman to protect him from harm during battle.
serving as a guardian or protector
Most of the people of ancient Rome believed in the existence of tutelary spirits.
a retaliatory action or retort
The commander decided that the enemy attack must be countered with a quick riposte.
delusions of power or importance
In his farewell speech the retiring trial judge warned his colleagues to beware of megalomania as they exercise their power in the courtroom.
division into two usually contradictory parts
The philosopher is a dualist who argues that there is a dichotomy between the mind and physical phenomena.
marked by abrupt, clear-cut sounds
We listened to the staccato steps of the woman in high heels running down the street.
sermon; tedious moralizing lecture; platitude
The pastor's homilies have been published in an anthology.
the characteristic quality of sound produced by a particular instrument or voice; tone color
The audience was delighted by the rich timbre of the singer's soprano.
The court ruled that the movie could be censored because its sole aim was to promote lascivious thoughts.
use of obstructive tactics in a legislature to block passage of a law
The senator threatened that his filibuster would include a full reading of his eight-volume autobiography.
likely to change
Blood pressure in human beings is, to varying degrees, labile.
of the flesh or body; related to physical appetites
The yogi's goal is to achieve nirvana through, among other things, the overcoming of carnal desires.
There is no one model of expository prose that a student can emulate, since each piece of good writing is unique.
The brazen student irritated his teacher by saying that he could learn more from a day spent “surfing” the World Wide Web than a day spent in school.
relating to earthquakes; earthshaking
The study of seismic waves enables scientists to learn about the Earth's structure.
based on the attitude that one's group is superior
The words “primitive” and “savage” reflect an ethnocentric bias in Western culture that regards societies that do not have Western science and technology as inferior because they have not achieved as much material success as Western societies.
The noun is ethnocentrism.
During certain periods of Chinese history, foreigners were considered to be “barbarians”; perhaps this ethnocentrism made it difficult for the Chinese to accept innovations from other countries.
to lessen; ease; soothe
Improvements in antivirus software have allayed many people's fears of having their computers “infected” with malicious software.
The scientist Carl Sagan wrote about astronomy and other scientific subjects in a way that enabled a reader with even a modicum of knowledge of science to understand what he was saying.
The audience sat, mesmerized, listening to the retired soldier's account of hand-to-hand combat against the Japanese in New Guinea during World War II.
to fail to act
Economists have pointed out the danger of using government money to help banks in danger of defaulting on a loan: such help might encourage banks to take excessive risks on the future, knowing they will be “bailed out” by the government.
faultfinding; intended to entrap, as in an argument
The pedantic and captious critic seems incapable of appreciating the merits of even the most highly regarded books.
The historian has a knack for focusing on information that appears nugatory but that, upon examination, illuminates the central issue.
Apropos of nothing, the speaker declared that the purpose of life is to love.
fleeting feeling of hurt pride
Sally left the restaurant in a fit of pique after her date called to say he couldn't come because he was working late.
As a verb, pique means to provoke or arouse.
The geologist's curiosity was piqued by the unusual appearance of the rock formation.