Basal Ganglia and Thalamus Flashcards Preview

[OS 202] Lecture Exam A > Basal Ganglia and Thalamus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basal Ganglia and Thalamus Deck (25):
1

Lentiform Nucleus Components

Putamen
Globus Pallidus

2

Striatum Components

Caudate Nucleus
Putamen

3

Corpus Striatum

Caudate Nucleus
Putamen
Globus Pallidus

4

Basal Ganglia Functions (6)

1. Integrates feeling and movement
2. Initiates internally generated movements
3. Shifts and smoothes fine motor behavior
4. Suppresses unwanted motor behaviors
5. Enhances motivation
6. Allows feelings of pleasure/ecstasy

5

Function: Claustrum

Regulation of Emotion and Sexual Arousal

6

Function: Substantia Nigra

Neurons are dopaminergic and inhibitory and have many connections to the corpus striatum

7

Function: Subthalamic Nuclei of Luys

Neurons are glutaminergic and excitatory and have many connections to the globus pallidus and substantia nigra

8

Location: Extra-pyramidal System

Motor System

9

Location: Extra-pyramidal Tracts

Reticular Formation of Pons and Medulla

10

Afferent Fibers (3)

1. Corticostriate Fibers
2. Nigrostriate Fibers
3. Striatopallidal Fibers

11

Neurotranmitters of:

1. Corticostriate Fibers
2. Nigrostriate Fibers
3. Striatopallidal Fibers

1. Glutamate
2. Dopamine
3. GABA

12

Is Dopamine an excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter?

Both!

Dopamine is both an excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter. Dopaminergic projections excite striatal cells of the direct (excitatory) loop through the D1 receptors in these cells, and they inhibit striatal cells of the indirect (inhibitory) loop through D2 receptors on these cells.


13

Efferent Fibers (1)

Pallidofugal Fibers

(Globus Pallidus -> Thalamus)

14

Where do the divisions of these Pallidofugal Fibers pass to?

1. Ansa Lenticularis
2. Fasciculus Lenticularis
3. Pallidotegmental Fibers
4. Pallidosubthalamic Fibers

1. Thalamic Nuclei
2. Subthalamus
3. Terminate in the caudal tegmentum of the midbrain
4. Subthalamic Nuclei

15

[Identify]

Quick, lightning-fast movements of face and upper extremities

Tic

16

[Identify]

Oscillatory, rhythmic, regular movement affecting one or more body parts

Tremor

17

[Identify]

Involuntary, irregular, purposeless, non- rhythmic, abrupt, rapid, unsustained movements that seem to flow from one body part to another

Chorea

18

[Identify]

Slow, writhing, continuous involuntary movement

Athetosis

19

[Identify]

Very large amplitude choreic movements of the proximal parts of the limbs causing flinging and flailing of limbs

Ballismus

20

[Identify]

Twisting movements that tend to be sustained at the peak of the movement, frequently repetitive and often progress to prolonged abnormal postures

Dystonia

21

[Identify]

Sudden, brief, shock-like involuntary movements caused by muscular contractions

Myoclonus

22

Clinical Features of Parkinson's Disease

TRAP

o Tremors at rest
o Rigidity
o Akinesia/ bradykinesia
o Postural instability

23

Function: Habenula

Food and Water Intake

24

Which thalamic nucleus does not send axons to the cerebral cortex?

Reticular Nucleus

25

Two Sensor-Motor Axonal Loops Necessary for Normal Voluntary Movement Involving the Cerebellum and Basal Nuclei

Cerebellar-rubro-thalamic-cortico-ponto-cerebellar Loop

Cortical-strial-pallidal-thalamic-cortical Loop