Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (27):
3 Divisions of the ANS
3. Enteric (Not discussed)
Functions of the ANS
1. Maintain homeostatic conditions
2. Coordinate body's response to stress, injury, exercise
3. Assists endocrine system to regulate reproduction
Where are postganglionic neurons found?
In the Autonomic Ganglion
Differentiate Somatic Motor Systems from Autonomic Motor Systems
Somatic: Direct motor transmission to the skeletal muscle
Autonomic: Preganglionic fibers transmit to Autonomic Ganglions then pass information to the postganglionic fibers to end effector organs
What channels do acetylcholine open?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic both use what neurotransmitter?
Receptors for Sympathetic Division?
In Parasympathetic Division what secretes acetylcholine?
Alternate name of Sympathetic Division?
Sympathetic Pre-Ganglionic Secrete?
All post-ganglionic of the Sympathetic Division secrete Norepinephrine except?
[T/F] Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter found in the pre-ganglionic fibers
There are other neurotransmitters which may modulate effects
What provides the fast EPSP's?
Which Division is more generalized?
Which one is more specific? Why?
Sympathetic Division is more generalized
The parasympathetic ganglions are closer to the end organs making the effects more local and precise
Acetylcholine is degraded by?
Adrenal Medulla can target a lot more because it uses this pathway to spread Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine?
Chromaffin Cells are what kind of ganglionic fibers?
Adrenaline is from what AA?
Origin of Adrenaline Pathway
Tyrosine -> Dopamine -> Noradrenaline -> Adrenaline
Locus Coeruleus neurons produce?
Organs Effected by Locus Coeruleus (A4, A6, Subcoeruleus)
Brainstem Nuclei (Sensory)
Major Neuronal Sources of Noradrenaline (2)
Ventral Tegmental Nuclei
Locus Coeruleus Nuclei
Most Important Source of Adrenaline
C1, C2, C3 Neurons
(Unlike Noradrenaline which are A1-A6)
Can a single neuron contain both Adrenergic and Noradrenergic transmitters?
What neurons are all cholinergic?
In a normal individual what is the BP response when one changes position from recumbent to standing? Normal heart rate response?
Assumption of an upright posture causes blood to shift downwards,
creating a decrease in stroke volume. The circulatory adjustment to orthostatic stress is rapid in healthy subjects. Mechanisms like cardiopulmonary reflexes, venoarteriolar reflexes, and vasopressin (AVP) and renin-angiotensin systems contribute to maintenance of postural normotension (Wieling & Van Lieshout, 1993).