Diencephalon Flashcards Preview

[OS 202] Lecture Exam A > Diencephalon > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diencephalon Deck (25):
1

What are the Anatomical Components of the Diencephalon?

Thalamus
Epithalamus
Subthalamus
Hypothalamus

2

Thalamus Functions (4)

1. Processes sensory inputs
2. Relays sensory inputs selectively to areas in the cerebral cortex
3. Regulates sleep and consciousness
4. Provides sensory feedback to the motor system, basal ganglia, & cerebellum

3

70-80% of humans have an interthalamic adhesion called?

Massa Intermedia

4

What divides the thalamus?

Internal Medullary Lamina

5

How many Major Subdivisions of the Thalamus, what are they?

1. Anterior Region
2. Ventro Lateral Region
3. Medial Region
4. Posterior Region (Pulvinar)

6

[Anterior Thalamic Nuclei]

How many nuclei does it have?
Function?
Where does it receive major input from?

Only One

Uncertain Role, probably with emotions and memory

Receives input from
- Mammillary Nuclei of Hypothalamus
- Presubiculum of the Hippocampal Formation

7

[Medial Thalamic Nuclei]

How many subdivisions
Where does it receive inputs?
Function?

3 Subdivisions, each with connections to parts of the frontal cortex

Receives inputs from:
1. Portions of the Basal Ganglia
2. Amygdala
3. Midbrain

Memory

8

How many ventral nuclei are there?

Names?

3

Ventral Anterior Nucleus
Ventral Lateral Nucleus
Ventral Posterior Nucleus

9

Where does the Ventral Lateral Nucleus receive inputs?

Substantia Nigra
Globus Pallidus
Cerebellum

10

Where does the Ventral Lateral Nucleus send inputs?

Primary motor cortex and premotor cortex

11

Function: Ventral Lateral Nucleus

Learning of movements

12

Where does the Ventral Anterior Nucleus receive inputs?

Substantia Nigra
Globus Pallidus

13

Where does the Ventral Anterior Nucleus send inputs?

Supplementary Motor Cortex

14

Function: Ventral Anterior Nucleus

Planning movements
Initiates wanted movements
Inhibits unwanted movements

15

Where does the Ventral Postero-Medial Nucleus receive inputs?

Solitary Tract
Trigeminal nerve via Trigeminal Lemniscus and Trigeminothalamic Tract

16

Function: Medial Geniculate Nucleus

Relays auditory impulses from inferior colliculus to auditory cortex

17

Function: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

Processes visual inputs from retina via the optic nerve

Sends projections to the primary visual cortex via the optic radiations (geniculo-calcarine/geniculostriate pathway)

18

What is the most posterior nucleus of the Thalamus?

Pulvinar

19

4 Subnuclei of the Pulvinar and Where they Project

Lateral :: visual cortical association areas
Inferior :: visual cortical association areas
Oral :: somatosensory cortical association areas
Medial :: cingulate, posterior parietal & prefrontal cortices

20

Parts of the Epithalamus (3)

Habenula
Stria Medullaris
Pineal Gland

21

Other name for Pineal Gland

Epiphysis

22

Function: Pineal Gland

Produces Melatonin

23

Parts of Subthalamus (4)

Subthalamic Nucleus of Luys
Zona Incerta
Reticular Nucleus of the Thalamus
Fields of Forel

24

Parts of Hypothalamus (3)

Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Mammillary Body

25

Hypothalamic Boundaries:

Anterior
Posterior
Superior
Inferior

Anterior – Optic chiasm & anterior commissure
Posterior – Mammillary bodies
Superior – Hypothalamic sulci
Inferior – Hypophysis