Basic Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Anatomy and Physiology Deck (115):
1

Anatomy

the study of the different body parts

2

Physiology

the study of the functions of the body parts, what they do, and how they do it

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Integumentary System

-skin and its appendage(hair, nails)

-physical barrier between the external environment and the internal structure of the body

-helps thermoregulation through sweat glands and muslce attched to the hair follicles

4

Thermoregulation

regulating body temperature

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Epidermis

-outer most layer of skin

-contains melanocytes (pigment)

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Keratinization

-causes new cells to put older ones on the sufaces

-dead skin cells help protect against pathogens that may other wise be able to penetrate the skin

7

Dermis

-"true skin"

-the middle layer of skin

-contains fibroblast

-immune cells

-hair follicles

-sweat glands

-sensory receptors

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Fibroblasts

-secrete elastin, collagen, and ground substance

-responsible for providing support and elasticity of skin

9

subcutaneous layer

-the innermost portion of the skin

-made up of adipose (fat and connective tissue)

-helps pretect against heat, UV rays, and infection

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Sweat glands

- two-part gland : secretory portion and an excretory duct

- scretory portion: located below the dermis and produces the sweat

- excretory duct: spirals through the dermis and exits at the surface of the skin

- help cool the body

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Sebaceous glands

-forms along the sides of the walls of the hair follicle and produce sebum

- sebum: oily substance responsible for lubricating the skin

-controlled by the endocrine system

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Four main functions of the skin?

-sensation

-protection

-heat regulation

-secretion

13

Rash

an area of red, inflamed skin

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Bacterial infection

occurs when bacteria lies on the surface of the skin

15

Viral infection

occurs when a virus penetrates the skin

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Parasitic infection

occurs when a worm or insect burrows into the skin to live or lay eggs

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Fungal infection

occurs when a fungus gains entry to the skin

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The Nerous System

made up of the central and peripheral nervos system

-function= to direct the voluntary or involuntary action of the body

-sends electical messages to and from the brain

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Central Nervous System

(CNS)

-brain and spinal cord

-message sent up the spinal cord from sensory receptors

-proceed and intrepeted by the brain

-brain sends a response

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Peripheral Nervous System

(PNS)

-nerves the branch out from the central nervous system to body limbs and organs

-recieves responses from the brain

-allow functions of the body to occur

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The Brain

-responsible for  receiving, interpreting and sending messages

-divided into four lobes

  • frontal lobe
  • parietal lobe
  • temporal lobe
  • occipital lobe

-larget part of the brain is the cerebrum, which is divided into 2 parts:

  • cerebral cortex
  • cerebral medulla

22

Spinal Cord

-long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissues

-extends from the brain down the backbone and to all parts of the body

-transmit neural signals

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Anxiety

a feeling of uneasiness, apprehension, fear, and worry theat affects an indiviual ability to function normally

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Depression

Constant feelings of sadness, irritability and lack of concentration

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Bipolar disorder or Manic despession

charaterized by peaks of extreme emotional highs and lows that can span days, weeks, or months

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Seizures

convulsions or involuntary muscle movements of the body cause by electrial acitivty in the brain

-type of seizure depends on origin of electrial activity

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Parkinson's disease

-Include, but not limited to : tremor, stiffness, and slow movement

-(too little) neurotransmitter dopamine

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Schizophrenia

abnormalities in a patient's perception or expression of reality

-(too much) neurotransmitter dopamine

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The Cardiovascular System

-the heart and blood vessels

-works with the respiratory system

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The Heart

-divided into left and right side

-both sides have atrium (top chamber) and ventricle (bottom chamber)

-made up of myocardium (cardic muscle)

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Arteries

-carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body

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Veins

-carries qxygen-depleted blood to the lungs to replenish oxygen

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Capillaries

-smallest vessels

-allows the exchange of water, oxtgen, nutrients, waste, and carbon dioxide between blood and tissues

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Blood

-a liquid tissue that is responsible for life

-approx. 5.6L in the body

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Conronary Artery Disease

(CAD)

narrowing of the vessels that supply blood the the heart

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Hyertension

high blood pressure

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Arrhythmia

irregular heart beat

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Thrombosis

formation of blood clot

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Myocardial infraction

(MI)

(heart attack) hearts respose to lack of oxygen

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Stroke

a clot that travels to the brain and blocks the flow of oxygen to it

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Upper Respiratory Tract

-place where the air enters the respiratory system and is filtered and warmed before moving to the lower respiratory tract

-mouth, nose, sinuses, larynx

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Lower Respiratory Tract

-where the air is taken to the body to be carried to tissues

-trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and lungs

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Bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchial tubes

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Emphysema

destruction of the air sac found in the lungs

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Upper Respiratory Infection

viral or bacterial infection concentrated in the mouth, nose, sinuses, and larynz

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Asthma

narrowing of the airway caused by an irritant

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Cystic Fibrosis

condition that causes the formation of thick, sticky mucus

48

The Gastrointestinal System

-hollow tubes that run from the mouth to the anus for digestion

-has five stages:

  1. ingestion
  2. digestion
  3. movement
  4. absorption
  5. elimination

-main organs:

  • mouth
  • pharynx
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  • small and large intestines

49

Mouth

-site of physical food breakdown

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Esophagus

-a tuve that connects the mouth and stomach

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Cardic Sphincter

-circular muscle at the end of the esophagus

-prevents stomach acid from splashing up and damaging the esophagus

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Stomach

-a saclike organ where chemical breakdown of food happens

-hydrochloric acid

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Pyloric Sphincter

-separates the stomach and mall intestine

-this is where nutrients and medicine are absorbed

-pancreas and liver aid the process by secreting enzymes

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Large Intestine

-responsible for eliminating the watse

-as waste moves through, solids are separated from liquids so it can reabsob water (prevent dehydration)

-separted into seven parts:

  1. cecum
  2. asending colon
  3. transverse colon
  4. descending colon
  5. sigmoid colon
  6. rectum
  7. anus

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

(GERD)

cause when acid from the stomach splashes onto the esophagus

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Nausea and Vomitting

awareness that something is stimulating the vomit center in the brain followed by involuntary conctraction of the abdominal muscles

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H. pylori

a bacterial infection in the mucosa that causes an increase in acid production

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Ulcer

a sore that forms in the stomach or small intestine commonly caused by an excess production of acid

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Ulcerative Colitis

an inflammation of the large intestine and rectum

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The Musculosketetal System

-combination of muscle and bone

-provides body support

-allows voluntary and involuntary movement

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Skeletal Muscles

-voluntary muscle that pulls on the bones

-allowing movement

-connected to bone by tendons

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Smooth Muscle

-involuntary muscle

-pushes blood through vessels

-pushes food through intestines

-controlled by the autonomic portion of PNS

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Cardic Muscle

-involuntary

-found only in the heart

-responsible for electrail stimulation and pumping blood

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Bones

-provide support and protection of organs

-made up of dense connective tissue infused with calcified substance

-contains marrow inside

-adult= 206 bones

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Bone Marrow

-gelatinous substance found inside bones

-red marrow : creates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

-yellow marrow : used for storage of fat

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Osteomyelitis

infection of the bone

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Osteoporosis

lost of bone density (brittle bones)

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Arthritis

inflammation of the joint

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

(RA)

autoimmune disease causing pain and inflammation in joints

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Tendonitis

inflammation of the tendons

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Muscle Spasm

the uncontrolled conctraction of a muscle

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The Endocrine System

-collection of organs which secrete horomones

-helps regulate many of the body's functions as it communicates for the NS

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Hypothalamas

-gland found in the brain

-responsible for releasing hormones that signal the pituitary gland

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Pituitary Gland

-controls the other endocrine organs

-screte specific horomones that stimulate indivial glands

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Thyroid Gland

(thermogenesis)

-responsible for metabolism, growth, and body heat production

-uses iodine to produce horomones T3 and T4

76

Adrenal Glands

-sits stop each kidney

-rsponsible for screting:

  • epinephrine
  • glucorticoids
  • mineralocorticoids

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Glucocorticoids

-anti-stress steriods

-anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties

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Mineralocortocoids

-responsible for regulating the salt/water metabolism, whch affects blood pressure

79

Pancreas

-below the stomach

-responsible for regulatin blood gkucose levels

-secretes either glucagon or insulin

-glucagon : horomone that rasies the blood glucose level (glycogen into glucose)

-insulin : hormone that lowers the blood glucose level (glucose into glycogen)

80

Diabetes

caused by the body's resistance or inability to produce insulin

81

menopause

caused by the stop in production of female sex hormones

82

hypothyroidism

occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce adequate thyroid hormone

83

polycystic ovarian syndrome

(PCOS)

caused by an excess amount of male hormone

84

growth disorders

can be caused by an excess or deficiency in growth hormone

85

The Reproduce System

-main involvemnet is the production of offspring

-ensure the survival of a species

-four main functions:

  • to produce ova(egg) and sprem cells
  • to transport and sustain these cells
  • to nurture the developing offspring
  • to produce hormones

86

Gonads

-considered part of the endocrine system

-sex-specific organs (testes & ovaries)

87

herpes

viral infection that produces sores on the gentials

88

chlamydia

bacterial infection in the reproductive tract

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gential warts

infection that causes wartlike bumps on the gentials

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gonorrhea

baterial infection in the reproductive tract

91

HIV / AIDS

viral infection that affects the immune system

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The Immune System

-responsible for protected the body against pathogens and foreign material

-specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms

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Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms

-mechanisms not specific to the pathogen

-tears flushing out eyes

-blood clotting to prevent pathogens in the bloodsteam

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Specific Defense Mechanisms

-defense mechanisma are specific to the pathogen

-antibodies

- T-cells and B-cells

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T-cells

-formed right before and after birth

-developed in the thymus gland

-reside in the lymph nodes

-provide a resistance to specific disease-causing agents

96

B-cells

-form in the liver

-contain one inserted antibody

-as it enters the bloodstream, it multiplys

-when it attaches to a pathogen, it will be come either a plasma or memory cell

97

Pathology

the study and diagnosis of disease and its processes

-help PT understand disease states an dmechanism of drug actio (MOA)

-pathogens : microorganisma that cause disease

98

Animal microorganisms

-commonly parasites that are bacterial, protozal, or worm

-bacterial and protozal = single celled disease-causing agents

-worms = multicelluar

99

Viruses

infectious agents that can only replicate inside a host cell

100

Autoimmune diseases

occur when the body becomes the target of its own defenses

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Plant microorganisms

-single-celled organisms

-screte digestive enzymes onto the organic molecules they are living on so they can feed on the dying cell

-fungi, yeast, mold

102

Prions

-only made of protein

-typically affect the brain

-diseases like mad cow disease

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Susceptible Host

a person who has little to no immunity to infection and has been infected by a pathogen

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Pharmacology

the study of the interactions betwwen living organisms and medications

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Pharmacokinetics

-study of absoprtion, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of a drug in the body

-how a drug moves and changes in the body

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Drug Agonist

drug that will cause a reaction to occur in the body

107

Drug Anatagonist

drug that wil cause a reaction not to occur or block a reaction from occuring

108

Pharmacodynamics

the study of the physiological effects a medication has on the body or microorganisms within the body

-MOA (mechanism of action) and adverse reactions

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Mechanism of Action 

(MOA)

is how the medication produces a pharmacological effect

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Drug-Drug Interactions

occurs when one drug prevents another drug from having the therapeutic (wanted) effect

-this can exacerbate the condition, damage the body, or kill the patient

111

Drug-Food Interactions

occurs when a medication interacts with one or more of the chemicals found in food.

can lead to dec. absoption, inc. plasma concentration levels, or an inc. release of chemicals by body

112

Indication

-or use

-an approved usage for medication to treat a disease or condition

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"off-label uses"

-treatments for diseases, but not FDA-approved

114

Drug Classification

a group of medications with the same or similar characterists

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Adverse Reaction

-side effect

harmful or undesired effects resultng from the use of a medication