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Phamacy Technician Exam > Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs Deck (43):
1

MOA

how the drug works in the body

2

hypercholestorolemia / antihyperlipidermic

cholesterol-lowering

Lipitor®

3

antidepressant

for despression

(sertraline Zoloft®)

4

analgesics

for chronic or acute pain

(hydrocodone/acetaminophen Vicodin®)

5

antacids

for heartburn or acid reflux

(MgOH and AlOH Maalox®)

6

antianginals

for chest pain associated with need for oxygen

(nitroglycerin Nitrostat®)

7

anticoagulents

to prevent blood clot formation

(warfarin Coumadin®)

8

anticonvulsants

for seizure control

(carbamazepine Tegretol®)

9

antihistamines

for allergies

(ceftirizine Zyrtec®)

10

antihypertensive

to lower blood pressure

(atenolol Tenormin®)

11

antibiotics

for infection

(amoxicillin Amoxil®)

12

antineoplastics

for treatment of specific cancers

(doxyrubicin Adriamycin®)

13

anti-inflammatory agents

reduces inflammation

(ibuprofen Mortin®)

14

antitussives

for cough

(dextromethorphan lozenges)

15

antivirals

for viral infections

(acyclovir Zovirax®)

16

bronchodilators

for ashma

(albuterol Vintolin®)

17

digestants

to promote digestion of food

(simethicone Mylicon®)

18

diuretics

to increase urine output

(HCTZ Esidrex®)

19

hormones

to replace natural endogenous organic compounds

(conjugated estrogens Premarin®)

20

hypnotics and sedatives

to inoduce and maintain sleep

(zolpidem Ambien®)

21

tranquilizers

reduce anxiety

(lorazepam Ativan®)

22

What is penicillin?

Indication?

Mechanism of Action?

Common adverse reactions?

  • are natural antibiotics produced from a certain species of fungus called penicillium.
  • IND- used for the treament of broad or narrow spectrum of bacterial microorganisms. they can be used as a prophylactic prior to surgery (most common in oral surgery)
  • MOA- works to eliminate bacteria by inhibiting the bacterial cell wall growth & cytolysis (cell wall rupture and dies)
  • CAR- hypersensitivity(allergic reaction), nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, and anaphylactic shock.

23

What is cephalosporins?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reaction?

  • are semisynthetic antibiotics, resistant to ß-lactamase(advantage over penicillins). Cross-sensitivity - a patient that is allergic to penicillin has a 5% chance to be allergic to cephalosporins also. Substitute for peniciliin for patient who have a resistant bacterial infection.
  • IND- used to treat broad spectrum bacterial microorganisms. Also oral surgery, neurosurgery, female reproductive system surgeries, orthopedic surgery and heart procedures
  • MOA- to elimanate bacteria by inhibiting cell wall growth & cytolysis
  • CAR- nausea, votting, diarrhea, and anaphylactic stock

24

What is fluoroquinolones?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • are synthetic antibiotics, more potent than penicillins and less likely to cause anaphylaxis, used in a wide variety of treament but a tolerance towards it is beginning to develop because it's used so much.
  • IND- used to treat broad spectrum of bacterial microorganisms (urinary tract, upper respiratory tract, ophthalmic. and bone infections)
  • MOA- works to eliminate bacteria by damaging the bacterial DNA.
  • CAR- nausea, vommiting, dizziness, and unpleasant taste.

25

What are sulfonamides?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • are synthetic derivatives of sulfanilamide first med to be proven effective for the prevention and cure of bacterial infection). Short-acting, intermediate-acting, & long acting depending on the time it takes for these meds to be absorbed and excreted.
  • IND- urinary tract infections, E.coli, and upper respiratory infections
  • MOA- to eliminate bacteria by inhibiting bacterial inflammatory and immune response.
  • CAR- anemia, thrombocytopenia(low platelet levels) and hypersensitivity (sulfa drugs).

26

What is tetracyclines?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • are semisynthetic antibiotics obtained from the cultures of a bateria known as streptomyces. Maintain stability in acidic solutions making it a strong choice for oral administraion. Impediments= milk and antiacids.
  • IND- gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (rickettsia and chlamydia)
  • MOA- to eliminate bacteria by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.
  • CAR- nausea, vommiting, diarreha, rash, and anaphylactic stock.

27

What is Histamine 1 Blocker?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • Histamine- chemical sustance in the body that protects the body from environmental factors like pollen. histamine 1 (H1) blocker.
  • IND- used for allergic reactions caused by histamine
  • MOA- H1 blockers block the effects of histamine at H1 receptor sites.
  • CAR- drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, and photosensitivity

28

What is anti-inflammatory drugs?

treat allegies and respiratory diseases by reducing inflammation in the affected area, include steroial products.

29

What are non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse Reactions?

  • over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAID)
  • IND- treat allergies and respiratory conditions
  • MOA- reduce swelling and inflammation caused by irritants or injury
  • CAR- dryness, headache, nausea, dizziness and cough

30

What are Non-Benzodiazepines?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • a hypnotic drug, dpress the central nervous system to reduce desire for physical activity or to produce a calming effect (commonly used to induce sedation)
  • IND-  to induce or maintain sleep or decrease anxiety
  • MOA- acts on GABA neurotransmitter to produce a calming effect
  • CAR- dizziness, drowsiness, loss of cognition, depression, and sleepwalking

31

What is antipsychotics?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reaction?

  • behavior disorder medications, treat variety of mental illness, used as both acute and chronic treatment of mental conditions including phychosis or depression
  • IND- used to control symptoms of psychosis and mood disorders.
  • MOA- work on specific neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin
  • CAR- dizziness, drowsiness, loss od cognition, depression, & extrapyramidal side effects(EPS)

32

What is benzodiazepines?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • behavior disorder drugs, used in both acute and chronic situations. Becoming more common due to their safety.
  • IND- used to treat anxiety and sleep disorders.
  • MOA- act by potentiating the effect of the GABA neurotransmitter, calming effect
  • CAR- dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, and depression

33

What is SSRI?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antidepressants. Considered to have the fewest and least serious side effects as compared to other antidepressants.
  • IND- to treat major depressive disorders
  • MOA- block the reuptake of serotonin into neuron
  • CAR- confusion, sedation, blurred vision

34

What is anticonvulsants?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • goal is to regulate the discharge activity to a normal level. The targeted effect occurs a few weeks afer the intials administration.
  • IND- used to stop or prevent seizures
  • MOA- believed to work by influencing the GABA neurotransmitter, suppress the central nervous system
  • CAR- nausea, vommiting, diarrhea, tremor, and dizzines

35

What is narcotic analgesics?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reaction?

  • opiate agonists, semisynthetic or derived naturally from the poppy plant. Has a high risk of abuse!
  • IND- for moderate to severe pain
  • MOA- alter the perception of and response to painful stimuli by stimulationf the opiate receptors in the brain
  • nausea, mental clouding, sedation, euphoria, withdrawal, and constipation

36

What is Beta-Blockers?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reaction?

  • anti-hypertensive drug, β-blocker beta-adrenergic receptor anatagonists or blockers.
  • IND- used mainly for hypertension but also used for other cardiac disease states(cardiac arrhythmias-irregular heartbeat, myocardial infaraction-heart attack)
  • MOA- occupy the B1 receptor site, will increase vasodilation and decrease both heart rate and blood pressure
  • CAR- dizziness, sexual dysfunction and vertigo

37

What is ACE inhibitors?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reaction?

  • angiotensin converting enzyme, reduce blood pressure.
  • IND- used to treat hypertension
  • MOA- works by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin 1 into agiotensin 2(which cause vasoconstriction).
  • CAR- headache, dizziness, weakness, and joint pain

38

What is agiotensin 2 receptor antagonists?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reaction?

  • can be given once a day
  • IND- used for hypertension
  • MOA- block the effects of the A2 enzyme at receptor sites, preventing vasconstriction
  • CAR- the only antihypertensive drugs that have no specific side effects

39

What is HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • antihyperlipidemic drug
  • IND- used to lower blood cholesterol
  • MOA- work by limiting the HMG-CoA reductase synthesis(necessary to produce LDL, or bad cholesterol)
  • CAR- abdominal pain, headache, nausea, constipation, and blurred vision

40

What is Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonists or blocker?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • H2 blocker, lower the amount of gastric acid produced in the stomach, also heals gastric or duodenal ulcers.
  • IND- used to treat hypersecretory conditions (excess of stomach acid)
  • MOA- works by inhibiting the interaction of histamine at H2 receptor sites
  • CAR- headache and rash

41

What is proton pump inhibitors?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • anti-acidic drugs
  • IND- used to treat hypersecretory conditions
  • MOA- prevent the transport of hydrogen to the gastric system(decreases the amount of stomach acid that can be produced)
  • CAR- nausea, vomitting, fatigue, and dizziness.

42

What is sulfonylureas?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • antidiabetic drugs - for hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
  • IND- used to treat type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)
  • MOA- stimulate the production of insulin in the beta bells of the pancreas.
  • CAR- vomiting, headache, blurred vision, sedation, and confusion.

43

What is biguanides?

Indication?

MOA?

Common adverse reactions?

  • antidiabetic drugs
  • IND- to treat type 2 diabiabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes)
  • MOA- reduce hepatic glucose output and increase uptake of glucose
  • CAR- vomiting, headache, blurred vision, sedation, and confusion.