Flashcards in Basic Anatomy - Upper Extremities Deck (91)
In anatomic position, both arms adjacent to the sides with palms facing what?
Two divisions of the skeletal system
1. Axial skeleton
2. Appendicular skeleton
Two basic types of bones
A. Compact bones
B. spongy bones
Type of bone with shaft (heads at both ends); typically longer
Type of bone mostly spongy and cube-shaped
Part of long bone, composed of compact bone
Diaphysis - shaft
Junction between epiphysis and diaphysis
Metaphysis (epiphysis refers to the ends of the bones, composed mostly of spongy bones)
Articular cartilage, which covers the external surface of the epiphysis is covered with what type of cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage -helps decreases friction at the joint surface
Medullary cavity in adults contains what type of marrow?
Yellow marrow - mostly fat
Red marrow - in infants for blood cell formation
Refer to Indirect bone formation
Intracartilagenous/endochondrial - mesynchem to cartilage to bone formation (all bones were indirect except for the flatbones of the skull)
Clavicle is considered part of axial or appendicular skeleton?
Zone of osteogenesis: mature chondrocytes undergo hypertrophy, contain vacoules and accumulate glycogen
Zone of Hypertrophy
Five zones of osteogenesis
Zone of Proliferation
Zone of Hypertrophy
Zone of Calcification
Zone of Ossification
Functional classification of Joints - mobility
A. Synarthroses - immovable joints
B. Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints
C. Diarthroses - freely moveable joints
Structural classification of joints - connecting medium
A. Fibrous joints - generally immovable
B. Cartilaginous joints - immovable/slightly moveable
C. Synovial joints - freely moveable
Example of fibrous joints;allows more movement than Sutures
Primary cartilaginous joints were connected by what cartilage type?
Hyaline cartilage - unlike secondary cartilaginous joints connected by fibrocartilage
Synovial joint type: Sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular
Synovial joint type: elbow, knee and ankle
Synovial joint type: shoulder and hip
Ball and socket / ENARTHROSIS
Refer to direct bone formation
Intramembranous - from mesynchem to bone formation
Synovial joint type: atlantoaxial/radioulnar
Pivot joint / trochoid
Anterior border of the axilla
Synovial joint type: carpometacarpal of thumb
Which is not part of the posterior border of the axilla?
(Serratus anterior muscle, subscapular, latissimus dorsi, Teres major)
Serratus anterior muscle - part of the medial border
Brachial plexus nerve block: position verified by feeling the pulsation of the 3rd part of what artery?
Weakest part of the axilla which is more prone to dislocation
Rotator cuff muscles?
C. Teres minor
Suprascapular nerve ligated, what part of the shoulder muscle/s will be affected?
Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus - supplied by Suprascapular nerve
Teres minor/Deltoid/Teres major - supplied by axillary nerve
Subscapularis - by upper subscapular
Function as rotators for the shoulder muscle
Infraspinatus - lateral rotator
Teres minor - lateral rotator
Subscapularis - medial rotator
Deltoid/Teres major - medial rotator
Mc affected tendon of the shoulder muscle:
Supraspinatous muscle - pain anterior, superior to the shoulder joint during abduction
Brachial plexus: the three trunks form into six divisions at what particular landmark?
two contents of the quadrangular space?
Axillary nerve - circumflex nerve
Posterior circumflex humeral vessels
Circumflex scapular vessels enter the TRIANGULAR SPACE bounded by what muscles?
Teres major - above
Teres minor - below
Long head of Triceps - laterally
A. Main flexor of the forearm?
B. Flexes and main supinator of forearm?
B. Biceps brachii
Part of the humerus: attached to common flexor tendon, common origin of forearm flexor muscles
Medial epicondyle - origin of Pronator teres, FCR, FCU, FDS and Palmaris longus
Golfer's elbow: repetitive flexion and pronation of the forearm at the elbow is the inflammation of what?
Common flexor tendon - medial epicondyle
a.k.a Medial Epicondylitis
Synovial joint type: metacarpophalangeal / KNUCKLE
Skulls, ribs, and sternum are what type of bone based on shape?
Flat bones - usually curved, thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone
Brachial plexus: in the neck, 5 rami/roots originate from what vertebral columns?
C5 to T1
Tendon: attached extensor muscles of the forearm with the lateral epicondyle of humerus
Common extensor tendon - origin if Anconeus, Supinator, ECRB, ED, EDM, ECU
Condition result due to forced extension and flexion of the forearm at the elbow
Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow - inflammation of the common extensor tendon - lateral epicondyle
All are contents of the cubital fossa except:
Median nerve, ulnar nerve, brachial artery, biceps brachii tendon, radial nerve
Ulnar nerve is not found in the cubital fossa
THENAR muscles supplied by the Median Nerve except:
Adductor pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Opponens pollicis
Adductor pollicis - it is innervated by Ulnar nerve
innervated by ANTERIOR division fibers except:
Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Ulnar, Median
Axillary together with Radial nerve contains Posterior Division Fibers
Tendon reflex at C5-C7 that results to supination of the radioulnar joints
Brachioradialis tendon reflexes
Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi and Opponens digiti minimi are collectively called ____ muscles; supplied by the Ulnar nerve
From C5 to C7 that innervates the Serratus Anterior
Long thoracic Nerve
If Ulnar nerve: C8-T1 then Axillary nerve is?
Axillary (C5 and C6) - Deltoid, Teres minor
From C5 - T1 which innervates the extensor compartment of arm and forearm
If tapping Triceps tendon (C6-C8) results to extension of the elbow joint then tapping the biceps tendon results to what?
Biceps brachii tendon reflex - C5-C6, flexion of the elbow
Triceps brachii is the main extensor of the forearm. What nerve is located in the posterior compartment of the arm?
Upper brachial injury, lesion at the C5-C6 ventral rami, proximal musculature of the upper limb is affected. "waiter's tip" position
Erb-Duchenne's Syndrome - due to fall on the shoulder or during difficult delivery
Weakness on the intrinsic muscles of the hands, combination of ape hand and claw hand. Results from compression of the C8-T1
Lesion results to protraction of the scapula, "winged scapula" after a radical mastectomy
Long Thoracic Nerve Lesion - commonly injured while coursing the serratus anterior
Lesion affecting the latissimus dorsi results to have difficulty in elevating the trunks and difficulty using a crutch
Thoracodorsal nerve lesion
Accident results to fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus. Patient experience altered sensation in the skin covering the deltoid and weakness in lateral rotation
Axillary nerve lesion - other shoulder usually became atrophic
Radial nerve lesion results to a wristdrop weakness, inability to extend the hand at the wrist and loss of extension at the MP joints of all digits.
Spiral fracture of the MIDSHAFT of humerus
Classic feature of a median nerve, proximal lesion usually due to supracondylar fracture of the humerus
Hand of Benediction - index and middle fingers remain extended when attempting to flex in making a fist
A median nerve, distal lesion due to LUNATE dislocation. Patient experienced numbness and pain over the palmar aspects of the thumb, index finger and middle fingers. Classic presentation? Associated syndrome?
APE hand - weakness in opposition of thumb
carpal tunnel syndrome
Claw hand, is a classic presentation for Ulnar, distal nerve lesion. Usually results from a fracture of what specific structure?
Fracture of hook of HAMATE
Axillary artery is a continuation of the __ artery
Subclavian artery - tendon of the Pectoralis minor divides it into three parts
Thoracoacromial artery belongs to the __ part of the Axillary artery
Second part together with Lateral thoracic
It is the highest thoracic artery of the Axillary artery
Superior thoracic artery - supplies the first two intercostal spaces
3rd part of the Axillary artery composed of what artery branches?
1. Subscapular artery
2. Anterior circumflex humeral
3. Posterior circumflex humeral
First bone to begin ossification during fetal development
Clavicle - and last one to complete ossification at about age 21
Fall on the shoulder or outstretched hand results to medial segment elevated by the pull of SCM and lateral segment displaced downward by gravity and Deltoid results to what injury?
Brachial injury/Lower trunk
Humeral fracture: axillary nerve affected, posterior circumflex artery maybe lacerated
Carpals: located proximally except:
Trapezium is part of the distal row
How many Palmar and Dorsal interossei per hand and their functions?
Palmar interossei - 3 ADDUCT fingers
Dorsal interossei - 4 ABDUCT fingers
Humeral fracture: radial nerve affected and Profunda brachial artery lacerated
Results to ring finger draws into palm the little finger, flexion of proximal interphalangeal joint
Dupuytren's contracture - localized thickening and contracture of the palmar aponeurosis
Humeral fracture: median nerve affected, contractions of triceps and brachialis may shorten the arm
Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, thumb is forcefully abducted
Synovial joint type: wrist
Musculocutaneous nerve that innervates the Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii and Brachialis came from what roots?
C5 to C7
Humeral fracture: ulnar nerve affected
Displacement of the lower end of radius anteriorly
Smith's fracture - fragments ventrally placed
Located inside the anatomical snuffbox
Styloid process of radius
Base of 1st metacarpal bone
Fracture of the neck of the 4th and 5th metacarpals, distal segments displaced proximally, shortening of the finger psteriorly
Dermatome: if inguinal is L1 then S5 would be?
May cause carpal tunnel syndrome, it is the most commonly dislocated carpal bone, typically dislocated anteriorily
Dermatome: medial aspect of the hypothenar eminence
Dermatome: small toe
The lymphatic drainage of the body is divided into two lymphatic vessels
1. Thoracic duct
2. Right lymphatic duct - right side of the head/neck, thorax, upper limb
Thickening of the synovial sheaths of the flexor tendons or arthritic changes of the carpal bones
Carpal tunnel syndrome - burning pain, pin and needles along the distribution of the median nerve
C7 - index and middle finger
C8 - ring finger and small finger
Deformity displacing the distal segment of the radius POSTERIORLY
Dinner/Silver fork deformity - COLLES fracture, fragment dorsally placed
If T10 dermatome level is umbilicus the. T4-T5 would be?
Our body has a total of how many bones?