Basic Anatomy - Upper Extremities Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Anatomy - Upper Extremities Deck (91)
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In anatomic position, both arms adjacent to the sides with palms facing what?

Anteriorly

1

Two divisions of the skeletal system

1. Axial skeleton
2. Appendicular skeleton

2

Two basic types of bones

A. Compact bones
B. spongy bones

3

Type of bone with shaft (heads at both ends); typically longer

Long bones

4

Type of bone mostly spongy and cube-shaped

Short-bone

5

Part of long bone, composed of compact bone

Diaphysis - shaft

6

Junction between epiphysis and diaphysis

Metaphysis (epiphysis refers to the ends of the bones, composed mostly of spongy bones)

7

Articular cartilage, which covers the external surface of the epiphysis is covered with what type of cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage -helps decreases friction at the joint surface

8

Medullary cavity in adults contains what type of marrow?

Yellow marrow - mostly fat
Red marrow - in infants for blood cell formation

9

Refer to Indirect bone formation

Intracartilagenous/endochondrial - mesynchem to cartilage to bone formation (all bones were indirect except for the flatbones of the skull)

12

Clavicle is considered part of axial or appendicular skeleton?

Appendicular skeleton

14

Zone of osteogenesis: mature chondrocytes undergo hypertrophy, contain vacoules and accumulate glycogen

Zone of Hypertrophy

15

Five zones of osteogenesis

Resting Zone
Zone of Proliferation
Zone of Hypertrophy
Zone of Calcification
Zone of Ossification

16

Functional classification of Joints - mobility

A. Synarthroses - immovable joints
B. Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints
C. Diarthroses - freely moveable joints

17

Structural classification of joints - connecting medium

A. Fibrous joints - generally immovable
B. Cartilaginous joints - immovable/slightly moveable
C. Synovial joints - freely moveable

18

Example of fibrous joints;allows more movement than Sutures

Syndesmoses

19

Primary cartilaginous joints were connected by what cartilage type?

Hyaline cartilage - unlike secondary cartilaginous joints connected by fibrocartilage

20

Synovial joint type: Sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular

Plane joint

21

Synovial joint type: elbow, knee and ankle

Hinge/Ginglymus

22

Synovial joint type: shoulder and hip

Ball and socket / ENARTHROSIS

23

Refer to direct bone formation

Intramembranous - from mesynchem to bone formation

24

Synovial joint type: atlantoaxial/radioulnar

Pivot joint / trochoid

25

Anterior border of the axilla

Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Subclavius

26

Synovial joint type: carpometacarpal of thumb

Saddle joint

27

Which is not part of the posterior border of the axilla?
(Serratus anterior muscle, subscapular, latissimus dorsi, Teres major)

Serratus anterior muscle - part of the medial border

29

Brachial plexus nerve block: position verified by feeling the pulsation of the 3rd part of what artery?

AXILLARY artery

30

Weakest part of the axilla which is more prone to dislocation

Inferior part

31

Rotator cuff muscles?

SITS
A. Supraspinatus
B. Infraspinatus
C. Teres minor
D. Subscapularis

32

Suprascapular nerve ligated, what part of the shoulder muscle/s will be affected?

Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus - supplied by Suprascapular nerve
Teres minor/Deltoid/Teres major - supplied by axillary nerve
Subscapularis - by upper subscapular

33

Function as rotators for the shoulder muscle

Infraspinatus - lateral rotator
Teres minor - lateral rotator
Subscapularis - medial rotator
Deltoid/Teres major - medial rotator

34

Mc affected tendon of the shoulder muscle:

Supraspinatous muscle - pain anterior, superior to the shoulder joint during abduction

35

Brachial plexus: the three trunks form into six divisions at what particular landmark?

Clavicle

37

two contents of the quadrangular space?

Axillary nerve - circumflex nerve
Posterior circumflex humeral vessels

38

Circumflex scapular vessels enter the TRIANGULAR SPACE bounded by what muscles?

Teres major - above
Teres minor - below
Long head of Triceps - laterally

39

A. Main flexor of the forearm?
B. Flexes and main supinator of forearm?

A. Brachialis
B. Biceps brachii

40

Part of the humerus: attached to common flexor tendon, common origin of forearm flexor muscles

Medial epicondyle - origin of Pronator teres, FCR, FCU, FDS and Palmaris longus

41

Golfer's elbow: repetitive flexion and pronation of the forearm at the elbow is the inflammation of what?

Common flexor tendon - medial epicondyle
a.k.a Medial Epicondylitis

42

Synovial joint type: metacarpophalangeal / KNUCKLE

Condyloid joints

43

Skulls, ribs, and sternum are what type of bone based on shape?

Flat bones - usually curved, thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone

44

Brachial plexus: in the neck, 5 rami/roots originate from what vertebral columns?

C5 to T1

45

Tendon: attached extensor muscles of the forearm with the lateral epicondyle of humerus

Common extensor tendon - origin if Anconeus, Supinator, ECRB, ED, EDM, ECU

46

Condition result due to forced extension and flexion of the forearm at the elbow

Lateral Epicondylitis / Tennis Elbow - inflammation of the common extensor tendon - lateral epicondyle

47

All are contents of the cubital fossa except:
Median nerve, ulnar nerve, brachial artery, biceps brachii tendon, radial nerve

Ulnar nerve is not found in the cubital fossa

48

THENAR muscles supplied by the Median Nerve except:
Adductor pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Opponens pollicis

Adductor pollicis - it is innervated by Ulnar nerve

49

innervated by ANTERIOR division fibers except:
Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Ulnar, Median

Axillary together with Radial nerve contains Posterior Division Fibers

50

Tendon reflex at C5-C7 that results to supination of the radioulnar joints

Brachioradialis tendon reflexes

51

Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi and Opponens digiti minimi are collectively called ____ muscles; supplied by the Ulnar nerve

Hypothenar muscles

52

From C5 to C7 that innervates the Serratus Anterior

Long thoracic Nerve

53

If Ulnar nerve: C8-T1 then Axillary nerve is?

Axillary (C5 and C6) - Deltoid, Teres minor

54

From C5 - T1 which innervates the extensor compartment of arm and forearm

Radial nerve

55

If tapping Triceps tendon (C6-C8) results to extension of the elbow joint then tapping the biceps tendon results to what?

Biceps brachii tendon reflex - C5-C6, flexion of the elbow

56

Triceps brachii is the main extensor of the forearm. What nerve is located in the posterior compartment of the arm?

Radial nerve

57

Upper brachial injury, lesion at the C5-C6 ventral rami, proximal musculature of the upper limb is affected. "waiter's tip" position

Erb-Duchenne's Syndrome - due to fall on the shoulder or during difficult delivery

58

Weakness on the intrinsic muscles of the hands, combination of ape hand and claw hand. Results from compression of the C8-T1

Klumpke's paralysis

59

Lesion results to protraction of the scapula, "winged scapula" after a radical mastectomy

Long Thoracic Nerve Lesion - commonly injured while coursing the serratus anterior

60

Lesion affecting the latissimus dorsi results to have difficulty in elevating the trunks and difficulty using a crutch

Thoracodorsal nerve lesion

61

Accident results to fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus. Patient experience altered sensation in the skin covering the deltoid and weakness in lateral rotation

Axillary nerve lesion - other shoulder usually became atrophic

62

Radial nerve lesion results to a wristdrop weakness, inability to extend the hand at the wrist and loss of extension at the MP joints of all digits.
Common cause?

Spiral fracture of the MIDSHAFT of humerus

63

Classic feature of a median nerve, proximal lesion usually due to supracondylar fracture of the humerus

Hand of Benediction - index and middle fingers remain extended when attempting to flex in making a fist

64

A median nerve, distal lesion due to LUNATE dislocation. Patient experienced numbness and pain over the palmar aspects of the thumb, index finger and middle fingers. Classic presentation? Associated syndrome?

APE hand - weakness in opposition of thumb
carpal tunnel syndrome

65

Claw hand, is a classic presentation for Ulnar, distal nerve lesion. Usually results from a fracture of what specific structure?

Fracture of hook of HAMATE

66

Axillary artery is a continuation of the __ artery

Subclavian artery - tendon of the Pectoralis minor divides it into three parts

67

Thoracoacromial artery belongs to the __ part of the Axillary artery

Second part together with Lateral thoracic

68

It is the highest thoracic artery of the Axillary artery

Superior thoracic artery - supplies the first two intercostal spaces

69

3rd part of the Axillary artery composed of what artery branches?

1. Subscapular artery
2. Anterior circumflex humeral
3. Posterior circumflex humeral

70

First bone to begin ossification during fetal development

Clavicle - and last one to complete ossification at about age 21

71

Fall on the shoulder or outstretched hand results to medial segment elevated by the pull of SCM and lateral segment displaced downward by gravity and Deltoid results to what injury?

Brachial injury/Lower trunk

72

Humeral fracture: axillary nerve affected, posterior circumflex artery maybe lacerated

SURGICAL neck

73

Carpals: located proximally except:
Scaphoid/lunate/trapezium/triquetral

Trapezium is part of the distal row

74

How many Palmar and Dorsal interossei per hand and their functions?

Palmar interossei - 3 ADDUCT fingers
Dorsal interossei - 4 ABDUCT fingers

75

Humeral fracture: radial nerve affected and Profunda brachial artery lacerated

Midshaft/spiral fracture

76

Results to ring finger draws into palm the little finger, flexion of proximal interphalangeal joint

Dupuytren's contracture - localized thickening and contracture of the palmar aponeurosis

77

Humeral fracture: median nerve affected, contractions of triceps and brachialis may shorten the arm

Supracondylar fracture

78

Fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone, thumb is forcefully abducted

Bennett's fracture

79

Synovial joint type: wrist

Ellipsoidal joint

80

Musculocutaneous nerve that innervates the Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii and Brachialis came from what roots?

C5 to C7

81

Humeral fracture: ulnar nerve affected

Medial epicondyle

82

Displacement of the lower end of radius anteriorly

Smith's fracture - fragments ventrally placed

83

Located inside the anatomical snuffbox

Radial artery
Styloid process of radius
Base of 1st metacarpal bone

84

Fracture of the neck of the 4th and 5th metacarpals, distal segments displaced proximally, shortening of the finger psteriorly

Boxer's fracture

85

Dermatome: if inguinal is L1 then S5 would be?

Perinuem

86

May cause carpal tunnel syndrome, it is the most commonly dislocated carpal bone, typically dislocated anteriorily

Lunate bone

87

Dermatome: medial aspect of the hypothenar eminence

C8

88

Dermatome: small toe

S1

89

The lymphatic drainage of the body is divided into two lymphatic vessels

1. Thoracic duct
2. Right lymphatic duct - right side of the head/neck, thorax, upper limb

90

Thickening of the synovial sheaths of the flexor tendons or arthritic changes of the carpal bones

Carpal tunnel syndrome - burning pain, pin and needles along the distribution of the median nerve

91

Dermatome: thumb

C6
C7 - index and middle finger
C8 - ring finger and small finger

93

Deformity displacing the distal segment of the radius POSTERIORLY

Dinner/Silver fork deformity - COLLES fracture, fragment dorsally placed

95

If T10 dermatome level is umbilicus the. T4-T5 would be?

Nipple

99

Our body has a total of how many bones?

206 bones

109

Important nerve of the anterior compartment of the arm

Musculocutaneous nerve