Flashcards in Skull Deck (67)
Paired part of the cranial bones
Parietal and temporal bones
Unpaired cranial bones
Frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones
Unpaired facial bones
Vomer and mandible bones
Six Paired facial bones
Palatine, lacrimal, maxilla, nasal, inferior nasal concha and zygomatic bones
Point and articulation of frontal, parietal, temporal and great wing of sphenoid is called
Gaping wound: Galea aponeurotica = infection: ?
Loose areolar connective tissue
Epidural / Extradural hematoma result from laceration of what artery?
Middle meningeal artery
Middle meningeal artery laceration usually results from what part of the skull?
Skull fracture that may cause blood or CSF to escape from the ear. Results to hearing loss and facial nerve damage
Petrous portion of the Temporal bone - internal acoustic meatus. CN VII and CN VIII
Fracture of this skull fossa - results to anosmia, periorbital bruising/ raccoon eyes and CSF leakage from the nose and Rhinorrhea
Anterior Cranial Fossa fracture
Horizontal maxillae fracture that passes through the superior orbital fissures, ethmoid and nasal extending to greater wing of sphenoid; maxillae and zygomatic separated from cranium
Le Fort III
Horizontal maxillary fracture superior to the maxillary alveolar process
Le Fort I
Maxillary fracture that involves the posterolateral parts of maxillary sinus, central part of the face separated from cranium
Le Fort II
Layers of the SCALP:
Aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
Loose connective tissue
Layer of the scalp: allows free movement of the scalp proper
Loose connective tissue
Layer of the scalp: tendinous sheet covering the calvaria
Layer of the scalp: emissary veins are found
Loose connective tissue
Craniosynostosis: premature closure of sagittal suture; frontal and occipital expansion; long and narrow skull
Craniosynostosis: premature closure of coronal and lambdoid sutures on one side of the skull
Craniosynostosis: premature closure of Coronal suture, short, high skull, TOWER sKull
Three primary brain vesicles
At 5th week of development: Prosencephalon divides into?
Telencephalon and Diencephalon
At 5th week of development: Rhombencephalon divides into?
Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
Telencephalon=Cerebrum then Diencephalon= ?
Pond, Cerebellum = Metencephalon then Medulla = ?
Midbrain is from what primary and secondary derivative?
Mesencephalon - no division
Neural tube differentiates into the CNS, while Neural crest gives rise to cells that forms?
PNS and ANS; cranial, spinal and autonomic ganglia
Neural tube defects is a defective closure of the neural tube at what week?
4th week - Folic acid/Folate reduces the incidence of NTD's (400mg)
Anatomical level: Cerebrum, basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus, CN I and CN II
Anatomical level: Spinal nerves and their peripheral branches
Anatomical level: CN III to CN XII
Anatomical level: spinal cord
Anatomical level: Cerebellum, Brainstem
Infratentorial level - brainstem is a collective term form for midbrain, pons and medulla oblingata
Three protective membranes or meninges of the brain and spinal cord
Layer of the Dura mater: dura mater proper, covering the brain and is continuous through the foramen magnum with the dura mater of the spinal cord
Layer of the dura mater: periosteum covering the inner surface of the skull bones
Sickle-shaped fold of the dura mater that lies in the midline between two cerebral hemispheres.
Falx cerebri - narrow anterior end is attached to the frontal crest and crista galli
Small, circular fold of Dura mater that forms the roof for the Sella turcica
Small, sickle - shaped fold of Dura mater attached to the internal occipital crest and projects forward between the two cerebellar hemispheres
Cresent-shaped fold of Dura mater that roofs over the posterior cranial fossa
Tentorium cerebelli - covers the upper surface of the cerebellum and supports the Occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
Dura above the tentorium is innervated by what? Headache is referred to the forehead and face
Cervical nerves innervates the dura below the tentorium. Headache is referred to the ___
Back of the head and neck
Potential space that separates the dura from arachnoid mater
Space that separates the pia mater with the arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid space - which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid/CSF
Motor area;seat of mental activities = frontal lobe then somesthetic area = ____ lobe
Hearing center: Temporal lobe = Occipital lobe: ?
Broadmann's area: 4 refers to?
Primary motor area/ pre-central gyrus
Broadmann's area: 3, 1, 2 refers to ?
Primary somesthetic area/ post-central gyrus
Primary visual area refers to what Broadmann's classification?
Broadmann's area 17
Primary auditory area is also Broadmann's?
Broadmann's area 41, 42
Broadmann's area 44 and 45 refers to?
Broca's area - inferior frontal area
Lesion on Broadmann's area 44, and 45 results to?
Motor aphasia - Broca's area
Broadmann's area: 22 refers to ?
Wernicke's area - result to sensory aphasia (superior temporal gyrus)
It refer to the primary auditory cortex
Pyramidal system provides voluntary control of skeletal muscles. It is consists of?
The pyramidal decussation of the Corticospinal tract is?
Patient experienced flaccid paralysis, atrophy and fasciculations with decreased muscle tone. What type of motor neuron lesion?
Spastic paralysis, (+) clonus and pathologic response with increased muscle tone refers to____
Upper motor neuron lesion
Paleocerebellum/Spinocerebellum refers to the ____ lobe of the cerebellum
Neocerebellum/Cerebrocerebellum - refers to the ___ lobe of the cerebellum
Posterior lobe - cerebral cortex
Archicerebellum/Vestibulocerebellum: is the ____ lobe of cerebellum; also the smallest lobe
Floculonodular lobe - vestibular apparatus
Lobe of the cerebellum for coordination of voluntary movements
Lobe of the cerebellum maintain coordination of limb movements while the movements are being executed, regulation of muscle tone
Lobe of the cerebellum responsible for coordination of the paraxial muscles associated withequilibrium
Presents with Ataxia resulting to intention tremor, dysmetria and dysdiadokinesia
Posterior lobe syndrome
Presents with loss of coordination chiefly in the lower limbs, marked gait instability
Anterior lobe syndrome