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Flashcards in Skull Deck (67)
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Paired part of the cranial bones

Parietal and temporal bones

1

Unpaired cranial bones

Frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones

2

Unpaired facial bones

Vomer and mandible bones

3

Six Paired facial bones

Palatine, lacrimal, maxilla, nasal, inferior nasal concha and zygomatic bones

4

Point and articulation of frontal, parietal, temporal and great wing of sphenoid is called

Pterion

5

Gaping wound: Galea aponeurotica = infection: ?

Loose areolar connective tissue

6

Epidural / Extradural hematoma result from laceration of what artery?

Middle meningeal artery

7

Middle meningeal artery laceration usually results from what part of the skull?

Pterion

8

Skull fracture that may cause blood or CSF to escape from the ear. Results to hearing loss and facial nerve damage

Petrous portion of the Temporal bone - internal acoustic meatus. CN VII and CN VIII

9

Fracture of this skull fossa - results to anosmia, periorbital bruising/ raccoon eyes and CSF leakage from the nose and Rhinorrhea

Anterior Cranial Fossa fracture

10

Horizontal maxillae fracture that passes through the superior orbital fissures, ethmoid and nasal extending to greater wing of sphenoid; maxillae and zygomatic separated from cranium

Le Fort III

11

Horizontal maxillary fracture superior to the maxillary alveolar process

Le Fort I

12

Maxillary fracture that involves the posterolateral parts of maxillary sinus, central part of the face separated from cranium

Le Fort II

13

Layers of the SCALP:

Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
Loose connective tissue
Pericranium/Periosteum

14

Layer of the scalp: allows free movement of the scalp proper

Loose connective tissue

15

Layer of the scalp: tendinous sheet covering the calvaria

Galea aponeurotica

16

Layer of the scalp: emissary veins are found

Loose connective tissue

17

Craniosynostosis: premature closure of sagittal suture; frontal and occipital expansion; long and narrow skull

Scaphocephaly

18

Craniosynostosis: premature closure of coronal and lambdoid sutures on one side of the skull

Plagiocephaly

19

Craniosynostosis: premature closure of Coronal suture, short, high skull, TOWER sKull

Oxycephaly/Acrocephaly

20

Three primary brain vesicles

Forebrain/Prosencephalon
Midbrain/Mesencephalon
Hindbrain/Rhombencephalon

21

At 5th week of development: Prosencephalon divides into?

Telencephalon and Diencephalon

22

At 5th week of development: Rhombencephalon divides into?

Metencephalon and Myelencephalon

23

Telencephalon=Cerebrum then Diencephalon= ?

Thalamus

24

Pond, Cerebellum = Metencephalon then Medulla = ?

Myelencephalon

25

Midbrain is from what primary and secondary derivative?

Mesencephalon - no division

26

Neural tube differentiates into the CNS, while Neural crest gives rise to cells that forms?

PNS and ANS; cranial, spinal and autonomic ganglia

27

Neural tube defects is a defective closure of the neural tube at what week?

4th week - Folic acid/Folate reduces the incidence of NTD's (400mg)

28

Anatomical level: Cerebrum, basal ganglia, thalamus and hypothalamus, CN I and CN II

Supratentorial level

29

Anatomical level: Spinal nerves and their peripheral branches

Peripheral level

30

Anatomical level: CN III to CN XII

Infratentorial level

31

Anatomical level: spinal cord

Spinal level

32

Anatomical level: Cerebellum, Brainstem

Infratentorial level - brainstem is a collective term form for midbrain, pons and medulla oblingata

33

Three protective membranes or meninges of the brain and spinal cord

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

34

Layer of the Dura mater: dura mater proper, covering the brain and is continuous through the foramen magnum with the dura mater of the spinal cord

Meningeal Layer

35

Layer of the dura mater: periosteum covering the inner surface of the skull bones

Endosteal layer

36

Sickle-shaped fold of the dura mater that lies in the midline between two cerebral hemispheres.

Falx cerebri - narrow anterior end is attached to the frontal crest and crista galli

37

Small, circular fold of Dura mater that forms the roof for the Sella turcica

Diaphragma Sella

38

Small, sickle - shaped fold of Dura mater attached to the internal occipital crest and projects forward between the two cerebellar hemispheres

Falx cerebelli

39

Cresent-shaped fold of Dura mater that roofs over the posterior cranial fossa

Tentorium cerebelli - covers the upper surface of the cerebellum and supports the Occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres

40

Dura above the tentorium is innervated by what? Headache is referred to the forehead and face

Trigeminal nerve

41

Cervical nerves innervates the dura below the tentorium. Headache is referred to the ___

Back of the head and neck

42

Potential space that separates the dura from arachnoid mater

Subdural space

43

Space that separates the pia mater with the arachnoid mater

Subarachnoid space - which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid/CSF

44

Motor area;seat of mental activities = frontal lobe then somesthetic area = ____ lobe

Parietal lobe

45

Hearing center: Temporal lobe = Occipital lobe: ?

Visual center

46

Broadmann's area: 4 refers to?

Primary motor area/ pre-central gyrus

47

Broadmann's area: 3, 1, 2 refers to ?

Primary somesthetic area/ post-central gyrus

48

Primary visual area refers to what Broadmann's classification?

Broadmann's area 17

49

Primary auditory area is also Broadmann's?

Broadmann's area 41, 42

50

Broadmann's area 44 and 45 refers to?

Broca's area - inferior frontal area

51

Lesion on Broadmann's area 44, and 45 results to?

Motor aphasia - Broca's area

52

Broadmann's area: 22 refers to ?

Wernicke's area - result to sensory aphasia (superior temporal gyrus)

53

It refer to the primary auditory cortex

Heschl's gyrus

54

Pyramidal system provides voluntary control of skeletal muscles. It is consists of?

Corticobulbar
Lateral corticospinal
Anterior corticospinal

55

The pyramidal decussation of the Corticospinal tract is?

Lower medulla

56

Patient experienced flaccid paralysis, atrophy and fasciculations with decreased muscle tone. What type of motor neuron lesion?

LMNL

57

Spastic paralysis, (+) clonus and pathologic response with increased muscle tone refers to____

Upper motor neuron lesion

58

Paleocerebellum/Spinocerebellum refers to the ____ lobe of the cerebellum

Anterior lobe

59

Neocerebellum/Cerebrocerebellum - refers to the ___ lobe of the cerebellum

Posterior lobe - cerebral cortex

60

Archicerebellum/Vestibulocerebellum: is the ____ lobe of cerebellum; also the smallest lobe

Floculonodular lobe - vestibular apparatus

61

Lobe of the cerebellum for coordination of voluntary movements

Posterior lobe

62

Lobe of the cerebellum maintain coordination of limb movements while the movements are being executed, regulation of muscle tone

Anterior lobe

63

Lobe of the cerebellum responsible for coordination of the paraxial muscles associated withequilibrium

Flocculonodular lobe

64

Presents with Ataxia resulting to intention tremor, dysmetria and dysdiadokinesia

Posterior lobe syndrome

65

Presents with loss of coordination chiefly in the lower limbs, marked gait instability

Anterior lobe syndrome

66

Presents with truncal ataxia

Flocculonodular lobe syndrome