What does blood consist of?
Protein-rich fluid - plasma
What is hematocrit?
What are the %s for males and females?
The volume of RBCs in a sample of blood
What percentage do leukocytes and platelets make up in the blood?
Consists of a buffy white coat when in the centrifuge
What does blood plasma consist of?
Also a solvent for proteins, regulatory substances, nutrients, electrolytes, gases, and waste
Where is the interstitial fluid found and what is it derived from?
The fluid is found around the tissue cells and comes from blood plasma.
What is serum?
Blood without the clotting factors.
Main protein constituent of blood (~50%), made in liver
What is the function of Albumin?
Exerts a concentration gradient between blood and EC tissue fluid.
Source of colloid osmotic pressure
Carrier protein for thyroxine, bilirubin, barbiturates
Largest component of glubulins, functional immune system molecules
Maintain the osmotic pressure within the vascular system & serve as carrier proteins
a-glubulins and b-glubulins (Non-immune globulins)
Fibronectin, lipoproteins, & coagulation factors are all what?
Largest plasma protein (340 kDa), is made in the liver
Insoluble form of fibrinogen
How can fibrinogen be dangerous to humans?
Fibrinogen chains may form from polymerized monomers.
These can become cross-linked, forming impermeable nets that stop blood flow.
What are formed elements?
They are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Formed in bone marrow.
How long do red blood cells live?
What % is removed each day?
Where are they phagocytosed?
Spleen, bone marrow, liver
These are immature RBCs released from bone marrow.
What do the indicate?
Still have organelles
Mature into erythrocytes in 24-48 hours
May indicate underlying illness.
This protein attaches unlying cytoskeletal protein network to cell membrane.
Glycophorin C - integral protein
This binds hemoglobin & acts as an anchoring site for the cytoskeletal proteins (most abundant)
Band 3 protein - Integral membrane proteins
What is glycosylated on the extracellular portion of integral membrane proteins in the erythrocyte?
Purpose of peripheral membrane network in erythrocytes.
"Laminate" inner layer of membrane
What is the inner lattice of erythrocytes composed of?
α-spectrin & β- spectrin molecules
Heterodimer that forms long, flexible tetramers
What protein complex interacts with glycophorin C?
Band 4.1 protein complex
What protein complex interacts with Band 3?
What does this complex consist of?
Ankyrin protein complex
Ankyrin & Band 4.2 protein
What causes most anemias?
Hemorrhage, insufficient production
Hemolytic anemia, accelerated destruction
What dietary problems can cause anemia?
Insufficient dietary Fe, vitamin B12, or folic acid can lead to decreased RBC production
This is an autosomal dominant mutation that affects the ankyrin complex.
Defective anchor points, causing membrane to detach & peel off → spherical erythrocytes
Autosomal dominant mutation the defects spectrin to spectrum lateral bonds and spectrin-ankyrin-band 4.1 protein junctions.
Membrane fails to rebound & progressively elongates → elliptical erythrocytes
What can cause jaundice in relation to blood?
Destruction of circulating erythrocytes
-Inherited RBC defects
-Pathogenic animals and toxins
Jaundice is common in newborn infants because of inefficiency of newborn liver.
Cause of sickle cell anemia
Single-point mutation β-globin chain of hemoglobin A (HbA)
• Sickle hemoglobin (HbS)
• Glutamic acid → Valine