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Flashcards in Basic Blood Deck (61)
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1

What does blood consist of?

Erythrocytes

Leukocytes

Thrombocytes

Protein-rich fluid - plasma

2

What is hematocrit?

What are the %s for males and females?

The volume of RBCs in a sample of blood

39-50% male

35-45% female

3

What percentage do leukocytes and platelets make up in the blood?

1%

Consists of a buffy white coat when in the centrifuge

4

What does blood plasma consist of?

>90% H2O

Also a solvent for proteins, regulatory substances, nutrients, electrolytes, gases, and waste

5

Where is the interstitial fluid found and what is it derived from?

The fluid is found around the tissue cells and comes from blood plasma.

6

What is serum?

Blood without the clotting factors.

7

Main protein constituent of blood (~50%), made in liver

Albumin

8

What is the function of Albumin?

Exerts a concentration gradient between blood and EC tissue fluid.

Source of colloid osmotic pressure

Carrier protein for thyroxine, bilirubin, barbiturates

9

Largest component of glubulins, functional immune system molecules

Immonoglubulins (y-globulins)

 

10

Maintain the osmotic pressure within the vascular system & serve as carrier proteins

 

a-glubulins and b-glubulins (Non-immune globulins)

 

11

Fibronectin, lipoproteins, & coagulation factors are all what?

Non-immune globulins

12

Largest plasma protein (340 kDa), is made in the liver

Fibrinogen

13

Insoluble form of fibrinogen

Fibrin (323kDA)

14

How can fibrinogen be dangerous to humans?

Fibrinogen chains may form from polymerized monomers.

These can become cross-linked, forming impermeable nets that stop blood flow.

15

What are formed elements?

They are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

Formed in bone marrow.

16

How long do red blood cells live?

What % is removed each day?

Where are they phagocytosed?

120 days

1%

Spleen, bone marrow, liver

17

These are immature RBCs released from bone marrow.

What do the indicate?

Reticulocytes

Still have organelles

Mature into erythrocytes in 24-48 hours

May indicate underlying illness.

18

This protein attaches unlying cytoskeletal protein network to cell membrane.

Glycophorin C - integral protein

19

This binds hemoglobin & acts as an anchoring site for the cytoskeletal proteins (most abundant)

Band 3 protein - Integral membrane proteins

20

What is glycosylated on the extracellular portion of integral membrane proteins in the erythrocyte?

ABO antigen

21

Purpose of peripheral membrane network in erythrocytes.

"Laminate" inner layer of membrane

22

What is the inner lattice of erythrocytes composed of?

α-spectrin & β- spectrin molecules

Heterodimer that forms long, flexible tetramers

23

What protein complex interacts with glycophorin C?

Band 4.1 protein complex

24

What protein complex interacts with Band 3?
What does this complex consist of?

Ankyrin protein complex

Ankyrin & Band 4.2 protein

25

What causes most anemias?

Hemorrhage, insufficient production

or

Hemolytic anemia, accelerated destruction

26

What dietary problems can cause anemia?

Insufficient dietary Fe, vitamin B12, or folic acid can lead to decreased RBC production

27

This is an autosomal dominant mutation that affects the ankyrin complex.

Hereditary spherocytosis

Defective anchor points, causing membrane to detach & peel off → spherical erythrocytes

28

Autosomal dominant mutation the defects spectrin to spectrum lateral bonds and spectrin-ankyrin-band 4.1 protein junctions.

Hereditary elliptocytosis

Membrane fails to rebound & progressively elongates → elliptical erythrocytes

29

What can cause jaundice in relation to blood?

Destruction of circulating erythrocytes

-Inherited RBC defects

-Pathogenic animals and toxins

Jaundice is common in newborn infants because of inefficiency of newborn liver.

30

Cause of sickle cell anemia

Single-point mutation β-globin chain of hemoglobin A (HbA)

• Sickle hemoglobin (HbS)

• Glutamic acid → Valine