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Flashcards in Stem Cells Deck (38)
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1

Characteristics of a stem cell.

Not terminally differentiated

Can divide without limit

Undergo slow division

When divide gives rise to 1 cell with stem cell characteristics and the other with the ability to be differentiated

2

Adult stem cells are ______ specific.

Tissue

3

Ability to give rise to all cells of an organism, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues (cells which support embryonic development).

Totipotency

e.g. zygote

4

Ability to give rise to all cells of the embryo and subsequently adult tissues.

Pluripotency

eg: embryonic stem cells

5

Ability to give rise to different cell types of a given lineage.

Multipotency

(adult stem cells)

6

A cell from a blastocyst is ______

Pluripotent

7

These cells differentiate into respective proportions of body parts where each cell has a fixed number of divisions.

Founder Stem Cells

8

Founder cells are controlled by what?

Short range signals that determine stem cell populations and operate for a few hundred cell diameters.

9

_____ are cells that divide frequently and become differentiated from stem cell.

Transit Amplifying Cells

Contribute to more cells needed.

10

Where do transit cell come from?

How many cell divisions do they have?

They leave the basal layer after differentiating from stem cells.

They have a finite number

11

What is the Immortal Strand Hypothesis?

Some tissues’ stem cells selectively retain original DNA as a way to prevent genetic errors in stem cells

 

This daughter cell will retain stem cell characteristics

12

How do stem cell differentiate?

Involve multiple factors that combine to produce epigenetic markers in the cell’s DNA that restrict DNA expression.

13

Stem cells derived from the blastocyst stage and that are capable of proliferating indefinitely in culture

Embryonic Stem Cells

14

When put into an adult will embryonic stem cells integrate?

What other things may they possibly integrate into?

No, they will however if put into an embryo

15

How are embryonic stem cells potentially dangerous?

Can become a tumor (teratoma)

16

What is the benefit of ES Cell therapy?

Induce development of specialized cell types while solving rejection problem

17

What have successful treatments in animal models been with stem cell?

Severe immune deficiency

Diabetes

Parkinson’s disease

Spinal injury

Demyelination

Myocardial infarction

18

These transcription factors are essential for pluripotent stem cells in the empryo

Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, and FoxD3

Never open spoiled feta.

19

This transcription factor is required during early stages of pluripotent cell differentiation

GCNF

20

Growth factors found in pluripotent cells

Cripto and GDF-3

21

Stem cell type from bone marrow.

Differentiates into blood components.

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)

22

Comes from bone marrow

Differentiates into connective tissues, tissues.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

23

What can supply both mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells without taking directly from embryo?

Cord Blood

24

What are the current strategies on using stem cells medically?

Use iPS (Patient derived)

Use non-patient derived (ES)

Reprogram primary cells

25

What are the potentially neuro-regenerative adult stem cells?

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs): transplant

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs): liposuction

26

iPS cells have a high potential for what dangerous side effect?

Teratoma formation

Due to viruses used to add genes and potential oncogenic factors.

27

What part of the blastocyst is removed in making iPS embryonic cells or in somatic cell nuclear transfe?

Inner cell mass

28

Challenges in SCNT

Inefficient (may need hundreds of oocytes)

Technically demanding - needs to be available in many or all hospitals

29

What is the environment that influences a stem cell known as?

A stem cell niche

30

Stem cells maintains telomeres via what?

Telomerase