Basic First Aid Flashcards Preview

NOTECARDS > Basic First Aid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic First Aid Deck (27):
1

Universal Precautions

- Treat all bodily fluids as if they were INFECTED
- Wear gloves
- Use barriers

2

Emergency Moves

- Walking Assist (1 or 2 people)- semi-conscious person, leg injury
- Pack Strap Carry- Conscious or Unconscious
- Two Person Sear Carry- Unconscious
- Clothes Drag- Conscious or Unconscious, helps to stabilize head, neck, and back injury
- Blanket Drag- easy to move when alone
- Foot Drag- helps to move a person too large to carry
- Do not give a person food or water

3

Wounds

- Contusion (Bruise)
- Abrasion (Scrape)
- Laceration (Cut)
- Avulsion
- Puncture
- CONTROL BLEEDING AND PREVENT INFECTION
- MAJOR WOUNDS: severe bleeding
- MINOR WOUNDS: cut (put pressure on it, put a bandaid)
- Contact solution with an amputated finger
- Leave an embedded object in person - let hospital take out the object

4

Control Bleeding

- Apply direct pressure
- Elevate
- Pressure bandage- 2x if necessary

5

Shock

- Result from another injury or illness
- The inability for the circulatory system to provide oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body, including brain, heart and lungs

6

Types of Shock

Hypovolemic - significant body fluid loss
Cardiogenic - due to heart damage or disease
Neurogenic - due to pain and nerve injury
Anaphylactic - reaction to an allergen
Psychogenic - psychological and emotional shock
Septic - infection

7

Signs and Symptoms of Shock

- Restlessness and irritability
- Altered consciousness
- Pale, cool, moist skin
- Rapid breathing
- Rapid pulse

8

Care for Shock

- Have victim lie down
- Control any bleeding
- Maintain normal body temperature
- Reassure the victim
- Do not give anything to eat
- Call EMS

9

EpiPen/Anaphylaxis

- Only apply EpiPen to a victim who has a prescribed EpiPen
- Outer Thigh
- Hold for 10 seconds
- Immediately call EMS
- Do not wait to administer EpiPen

10

Asthma Attack

- Asthma is a condition in which a victims bronchial tract becomes inflamed and can close from the inflammation
Signs and Symptoms:
- Difficulty breathing - shortness of breath
- Coughing
- Wheezing
- Tightness in chest
- Rapid shallow breathing
- Unable to talk without stopping for a breath
- Fear and confusion
Care: Assist with inhaler, calm the victim, stop activity

11

Burns

- 1st Degree-superficial tissue burn
- 2nd Degree-most painful, partial tissue burn
- 3rd Degree-complete tissue burn
Critical Burns-life threatening
- cover more than one body part
- child or elderly
- causing difficulty breathing
- over head, neck, or genitals
- from chemicals, explosives or electricity

12

Care for Burns

- Stop
- Cool
- Cover
- Determine if critical
- Call EMS

13

Stroke

- Stroke - reduce blood flow to the brain
- Person often VISIBLY impaired on one side of body, victim usually disoriented
FAST - Face, Arm, Speech, Time
- Face-weakness on one side of face, ask the victim to smile
- Arm- weakness or numbness in one arm, ask the victim to raise both arms
-Speech- slurred speech or trouble getting words out, have person repeat a simple sentence
-Time- Note time signals first observed
- Call 9-1-1

14

Sudden Illness

- Look or feel sick
- Lightheaded, confused, dizzy, weak
- Nausea
- Change in skin color
- Change in consciousness
- Persistent pain
- Severe headache
- Slurred speech

15

Care

- Rest comfortably
- Keep from exchange temperatures
- Watch for changes
- If they vomit...place on side
- If they faint...place on back and elevate feet 8-12 inches off ground

16

Diabetic Emergency

- Pancreas secretes insulin to break down the sugar in our foods into its simplest form, glucose, which is used by the body's cell
- Insulin Dependent Diabetic-Pancreas does not supply enough insulin
- Hypoglycemic-not enough insulin/too much sugar

17

Diabetic Emergency

Signals
- Seems ill
- Gradual onset and progression
- Restlessness and confusion
GIVE SUGAR
- if they improve, monitor
- if they don't improve, call 9-1-1

18

Seizure

- Clear area
- Pad the head - make a pillow
- Do not restrain
- Do not put anything between teeth
- Reassure victim
- Seizure that lasts more than 5 minutes is death threatening
- Symptoms: lose body control, body is rigid, screams, may fall

19

Sprains and Strains

- Sprain: stretching or tearing the ligaments (attach bone to bone)
- StrainL stretching or tearing the muscle or tendon (muscle to bone)
Care: RICE
- Rest
- Ice
- Compression
- Elevation

20

Spinal Injuries

- NEVER move a victim if a spine injury is suspected
- In-line stabilization
- If unconscious...suspect neck injury

21

Immobilization

- Splint only if you have to move victim
- Splint in position you found the victim in
- Splint only if you do so without harm
- Check for feeling, warmth and color before and after
TYPES: anatomical, rigid, soft (sling)

22

Poisoning

If suspect poisoning...
Call 9-1-1 or Poison Control
Types of Poisoning
- ingestion
- absorption
-inhalation
-injection

23

When do you call 9-1-1?

- Unconscious
- Having trouble breathing
- Chest pain or pressure in chest
- Internal bleeding - pressure in abdominal does not go away
- Severe bleeding
- Vomiting blood

24

Poisoning

If suspect poisoning...
Call 9-1-1 or Poison Control
Types of Poisoning
- ingestion
- absorption
-inhalation
-injection

25

When do you call 9-1-1?

- Unconscious
- Having trouble breathing
- Chest pain or pressure in chest
- Internal bleeding - pressure in abdominal does not go away
- Severe bleeding
- Vomiting blood

26

Heat-Related Illness

- Heat Cramps - cramping, fatigue
- Heat exhaustion - sweaty, fatigue
- HEAT STROKE (LIFE THREATENING)
- red, dry, skin. No sweat.

27

Cold Related Illness

- Frostbite
- Hypothermia
- Care: slowly rewarm the victim
- remove wet clothes
- add warm clothes
- hats
- something warm to drink