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Flashcards in Basics Deck (41)
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1
Q

What are the common ‘female’ problems that owners consult the vet about? (15)

A
Neutering
Stopping a season
Suspected pregnancy
Misalliance
Calling
False Pregnancy
Lactation
Dystocia
Mating time
Fertility problems
Vulval discharge
Vulval mass
Vulval swelling
Abdominal distension
Systemic illness
2
Q

What are the common ‘male’ problems that owners consult the vet about?

A
Neutering
Behavioural modification
Testicles missing
Testicles of different sizes
Difficulty defecating
Systemic illness
Preputial discharge
Penis sticking out
Penile mass
Penile/testicular injury
3
Q

What is misalliance?

A

Inadvertent mating

4
Q

What is the first question you should answer when faced with a potential reproductive problem?

A

Is this just a manifestation of normal reproductive physiology?

5
Q

What do we use to diagnose reproductive problems?

A

History
Clinical signs
PE findings
Combination of a variety of diagnostic tests

6
Q

What things should be taken from a history with a reproductive problem?

A
Define owners problem/reason for visit
Age, breed and sex
Neutered/entire
Females - last season (when, normal, mating?), breeding history
Current/planned use of animal
Previous illnesses/surgery
Additional general information
7
Q

What should you perhaps do if a breeder is coming in with a reproductive problem>

A

Touch up on reading to ensure you know what you are talking about

8
Q

Why would use of the animal affect your decision in reproductive problems?

A

Depends on decision to neuter if owner wishes to breed from the animal

9
Q

What should be examined clinically in the female?

A
General PE
Vulva
Mammary glands
Vaginal examination (possibly)
Rectal examination (possibly)
Response to behavioural stimuli
10
Q

What should be examined clinically in the male?

A
General PE
Scrotum and testes
Prepuce and penis
Mammary glands (possibly)
Rectal examination
11
Q

What do we want to assess in a general physical examination with a potential reproductive problem?

A

BCS
Pyrexia
Signs of anaemia/shock
Lymphadenopathy

12
Q

What do we want to focus on in abdominal examinations with a potential reproductive problem?

A
Abdominal mass
Uterine enlargement
Fluid thrill
Visceral displacement
Pain
13
Q

What is fluid thrill?

A

Free fluid within the abdomen

Blot the abdomen and can feel it come through wall on the opposite side

14
Q

What do we check mammary glands for?

A
Enlargement
Lactation
Masses
Pain
Discharge
15
Q

What should we check the scrotum for?

A
Check skin
Presence of two testicles
Size
Shape
Consistency
Mobility
Pain
16
Q

What should we check the vulva/prepuce for?

A

Size
Shape
Position
Abnormalities
Discharge - colour, consistency, smell, inflammation
Mucous membranes and junction
Extrude penis - shaft and external urethral orifice

17
Q

How well tolerated are digital rectal examinations? Vaginal examinations?

A

Rectal well tolerated

Vaginal usually resented in dogs and not possible in most cats

18
Q

When are vaginal examinations possible in cats and easier in dogs?

A

During parturition as muscle relaxed

19
Q

What should you use when undertaking a rectal examination?

A

Lube
Gloves
Adequate restraint

20
Q

What are you checking in a rectal examination?

A
Anal sacs
Urethra
Prostate
Vagina
Enlarged dorsal lymph nodes
Pelvic diameter
21
Q

What are the signs of oestrus?

A

Vulval enlargement

Standing on

22
Q

What is an extremely important thing in coming up with differential diagnoses?

A

Neutered status - eliminates hormone driven reproductive disease

23
Q

What do haematology and biochemistry allow detection of?

A

Changes that are suggestive of: infection/sepsis, azotaemia, hypo/hypercalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, anaemia

24
Q

What are urinary tract infections closely related to?

A

Reproductive tract infections

25
Q

What are hormonal assays particularly helpful for?

A

Detecting incompletely excised gonadal tissue
Aid pregnancy diagnosis
Predict ovulation
Predict optimal mating time

26
Q

What are the four commercially available hormonal assays in the UK?

A

Testosterone
Oestrogen
Progesterone
Relaxin

27
Q

What are the two main diagnostic images used in reproductive problems?

A

Radiography

Ultrasound

28
Q

What is becoming an increasingly important diagnostic imaging tool in reproductive diagnosis?

A

Cross sectional imaging - CT

29
Q

What is ultrasound most useful for?

A
Imaging parenchymatous organs
Distinguishing fluid from soft tissues
Image guided centesis and biopsies
Assessing viability of pregnancy
Detecting free abdominal fluid
Determining origin of organ enlargement
Abdominal pathology/change
30
Q

What is ultrasound not good at?

A

Imaging intrapelvic structures
Detecting bony change
Detecting foetus number

31
Q

What is radiography most useful for?

A

Imaging bony changes - foetal mineralisation, foetal number, pelvic anatomy, injury to os penis
Contrast techniques - extent and location of luminal abnormalities
Thoracic radiography - pulmonary metastases

32
Q

What is a good method of examining the lumen of the vagina?

A

Endoscopy

33
Q

What are the two scopes used to examine the vagina?

A

Short scopes - vestibule, caudal vagina, place urethra catheters
Longer scopes - rigid or flexible, entire vagina

34
Q

What can be a useful aid to breeding management?

A

Vaginal mucosa - changes in appearance tell stage of oestrus cycle

35
Q

What does endoscopy allow detection of?

A

Strictures
Septae
Neoplasia
Foreign bodies

36
Q

What is an important tool for assessing the stage of the reproductive cycle in the bitch?

A

Vaginal cytology

37
Q

How are aspirates normally obtained?

A

Under ultrasound guidance

38
Q

What are the four ways that biopsies may be taken?

A

Incisional
Excisional
Needle
Grasping forceps

39
Q

Why is vaginal/preputial bacteriology not that useful?

A

Usually normal flora

Doesn’t advance diagnosis that much

40
Q

What is important for evaluation of male infertility?

A

Collection of ejaculate

Rarely collected on investigation of clinical disease

41
Q

When should exploratory laparotomy/laparoscopy be used?

A

Only when confirming differential diagnosis

Need a specific surgical plan following investigation