Small Animal - Male Flashcards
What is the most common congenital defect in the male dog?
Missing testicle - cryptorchidism
What are the three locations of undescended testicles?
Inguinal - most common
What is cryptorchidism thought to be?
Sex linked autosomal recessive trait
What are retained testicles more susceptible to?
What is the treatment for cryptorchidism?
Castration to prevent future problems
What is extremely rare in dogs?
What are the three presentations of different testicle sizes?
Increased in size
One increased and one decreased
One decreased in size
What are the three main causes of different sized testicles?
What can help make a diagnosis of the cause of different sized testicles?
History Physical examination Ultrasound Aspiration Biopsy
What is the second most common site for tumours in dogs?
What are the three most common tumour types in testicles?
Interstitial cell tumour
Seroli cell tumour
What is the difference between tumours affecting scrotal testicles and those affecting cryptorchid testicles?
Scrotal neoplasia is usually benign
Cryptorchid neoplasia is usually malignant
Where do matastasised tumours usually go?
What occurs if testicular tumours are functional?
Interstitial produce testosterone
Sertoli tumours may produce oestrogen - leads to feminisation
What can all testicular tumour types be associated with?
Infertility - production of hormones, replacement of functional tissue
What is diagnosis and treatment of testicular neoplasia usually combined with?
What are signs of orchitis/epididymitis?
Epididymal enlargement Testicular pain Tenseness and scrotal oedema May abcessate Systemic illness
What can chronic infections of orchitis/epididymitis result in?
Small and firm testicle with epididymal enlargement
Adhesions between tunics and scrotum may reduce mobility
What are the three origins of orchitis/epididymitis?
What two things does the treatment of orchitis/epididymitis depend upon?
Severity of signs
Use of dog
What is the frequent treatment for orchitis/epididymitis?
What is testicular torsion more common in?
What can the presenting signs of testicular torsion be confused with?
Disease of other body systems
What is generally required with testicular torsion?
What are the presenting signs for protruding penis?
Social problem for owner Low grade irritation Pain Bleeding Trauma
What are the three diagnoses of protruding penises?
What is paraphimosis?
Non-erect penis prostrudes from prepuce and cannot be retracted or retained in its normal position
What can paraphimosis result from?
Narrowed preputial orifice
Penile enlargement preventing retraction
Failure of penis to stay in prepuce - abnormally short prepuce, weak preputial musciles, weak retractor penis muscle, contracture following wound
What does the treatment of paraphimosis depend on?
What are the treatments for paraphimosis?
Symptomatic Surgical enlargement of opening Phallopexy Preputial lengthening/reconstructive procedures Partial penile amuptation