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Flashcards in Basics Deck (27):
1

Pharmacodynamics

biochemical and physiological effect of drugs and MOA

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Pharmacokinetics

study of how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes and excretes drugs

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Clinical testing of drugs phase 1
II
III IV

-clinical pharmacology (small group 20-80)
-clinical investigation (larger group 100-300)
-clinical trial (largest group 1k-3k)
-post marketing studies

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1 ounce = how many ccs/ml?

30 ccs/ml

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1 mL = how many ccs?

1

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1 tsp = how many ccs?
1 tbsp =how many ccs?

5cc
15cc

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we prefer drugs with a ( ) TI

HIGH

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3 types of drug actions

-replacement
-interruption
-potentiation

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agonist

-drug that combines w/receptor and activates
-stimulates release of an endogenous chemical

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antagonist

-drug that combines w/receptor used by an endogenous chemical and blocks/diminishes the response

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a partial agonist has ( ) affinity but ( ) efficacy

high, low

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Potency

if the dose of drug A is less than drug B to achieve same response, A is more potent

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efficacy

magnitude of the maximum biologic effect

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tolerance vs dependence

tolerance-reduced response to same/increased dose due to change in receptor sensitivity

dependence-pt needs a drug to function normally

15

most drugs pass through membranes via

passive diffusion

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first pass effect

drugs that are well absorbed in the GI tract and are metabolized by the liver have decreased bioavailability

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Drugs that are bound to anything other than a receptor are ( )

inactive

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the brain is highly ( )

lipophilic

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Phase I metabolism and main enzyme

non-synthetic oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis
cytochrome P450

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Phase II metabolism

synthetic-conjugation

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predominant CYP450 isoform

CYP3A4 (benzos, HIV, Ca blockers)

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most studied genetic polymorphism

CYP2D6 (psychotropics, codeine, beta blockers)

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the control of excreting a drug is via the

kidneys and is pH related

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clearance

rate at which the drug is eliminated from the body

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how many half lives for non-therapeutic?
out of body?

5
7

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synergism
potentiation
induction

combined effect is greater than the sum
inactive drug increases effect of another
one drug increases the drug-metabolizing enzyme activity of another

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Cat A
B
C
D
X

evidence safe for human
animal evidence safe
animal avoid, no human data
animal and human avoid
AVOID