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Flashcards in Basics of Hematology Deck (105)
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1

Hematopoiesis

Formation of blood cellular components

2

Erythropoiesis

Process by which RBCs are produced

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Hemostasis

The arrest of stopping of bleeding

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Thrombosis

Formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel that obstructs the flow of blood

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What are the 5 types of WBCs in blood?

Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils

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Platelets (what, where, how)

Small cell fragments produced from MEGAKARYOCYTES found in the bone marrow. Reponsible for hemostatis, which results from interaction between platelets, endothelium, and blood coagulation factors

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Hematocrit

RBC/Total
Expressed as a percentage

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What is plasma composed of?

Proteins, Lipids, Salts, Carbohydrates

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What is the Buffy Coat?

Composed of WBCs and Platelets. Between RBC (bottom) and Plasma (top) when a vile of blood is spun down

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RBC metabolism

No mitochrondria, so dependent of anaerobic metabolism. Reduction through glutathione pathway. Dependent on NADPH through pentose phosphate shunt

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Hemolysis

RBC destruction

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Normal RBC morphology

Circular, biconcave disc-shaped. Mean size 7.5um. Lacks nuclei. Eosinophilic cytoplasm. Central area of pallor, less that 1/3 the diameter of the cell

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Causes of Abnormal RBC Count

Anemia: Decreased RBC due to blood loss, destruction, or insufficient erythropoiesis
Erythrocytosis/Polycythemia: Increased RBC due to reactive changes (smoking), thalassemia, or primary marrow neoplasm

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Causes of Abnormal Hemoglobin Concentraion

Anemia: Decreased due to blood loss, destruction, or insufficient erythropoiesis
Erythrocytosis/Polycythemia: Increased RBC due to reactive changes (smoking), thalassemia, or primary marrow neoplasm

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Causes of Abnormal Hematocrit

Decreased due to anemia of fluid overload
Increased due to erythrocytosis/polycyhemia or dehydration

16

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)

Mean size of RBC

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Causes of Abnormal MCV values

Low for Microcytosis, iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia
High for Macrocytosis, megaloblastic anemia

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Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH)

Mean quantity of hemoglobin in a single red cell
*parallels MCV. If MCV goes up or down, MCH goes up or down*

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Causes of Abnormal MCH values

Low MCH: Hypochromatic, iron deficiency anemia
High MCH: Hyperchromatic, megaloblastic anemia

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Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)

Measure of the variability in size of red cells. The wider the cell histogram, the higher the RDW.

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Causes of Abnormal RDW values

Increased in anemia and disease with RBC destruction (ie schistocytosis)

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Neutrophil

A granular WBC. The most common type of WBC. Primary role in inflammation and destroy pathogens via phagocytosis

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Neutropenia

Decreased absolute neutrophil count

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Causes of Neutropenia

Infections, Drugs, Ionizing radiation, Marrow diseases, Bone marrow infiltration by tumors, Autoimmune disease, Congenital neutropenia

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Neutrophilia

Increased in absolute neutrophil count

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Causes of Neutrophilia

Physiologic (neonates, exercise, emotion, pregnancy, lactation), Acute inflammation (infections, surgery, infarcts, autoimmune), Malignancies, Drugs (adrenaline, corticosteroids, lithium)

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Eosinophil

A WBC with lobed nucleus and cytoplasmic granules. Contribute tot he destruction of parasites and to allergic reactions by releasing chemical mediators (ie histamine)

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Eosinopenia (and causes)

Decrease in eosinophils. Caused by drugs (corticotrapin, corticosteroids, epinephrine, histamine) or Acute inflammation or Infection

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Eosinophilia (and causes)

Increase in eosinophils. Caused by: Infections (parasites or fungi), Allergic disorders, Leukemias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Malignancies

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Basophil

One type of granulocytic WBC. Essential to the innate immune response of inflammation because they release histamine. Usually two nuclear lobes