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how many tonnes of municipal solid wastes is generated per year?

roughly 2 billion tonnes per year (yr-1)


what are the 4 reasons for the increase in volume and complexity of waste?

growing global population
increased consumption per person attributed to increased wealth and changes in lifestyles


why is the need to safely manage waste even more important in the modern age?

it is even more important to manage waste safely, due to potentially adverse environmental, social and economic consequences of inadequate waste treatment and disposal methods


what are the 5 pillars of sustainability?

people, prosperity, planet, peace and partnership


what are the 4 things to consider when trying to define waste?

language which is influences upon management, planning, policy decision and processes
need to produce effective and complementary waste management strategies to be implemented across a diverse range of sectors
clear, agreed, consistent definitions and terminology
lack of internationally agreed interdisciplinary definitions for waste.


what is biological waste?

unwanted substances or toxins expelled from living organisms, metabolic waste (urea and sweat)


what is the UN statistical Division definition of waste?

wastes are materials that are not prime products (products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and which he/she wants to disposed.
wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, consumption of final products, and other human activities. residual recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded.


what is the Basel Convention Definition of Wastes?

substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law


what is the Basel Convention Definition of DISPOSAL?

any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses.


what is the definition of waste from the Waste Framework Directive, Article 1?

waste means any substance or object which the holder disposes of or is required to dispose of pursuant to the provisions of national law in force.


what is the definition of DISPOSAL from the Waste Framework Directive, Article 1?

the collection, sorting, transport and treatment of waste as well as its storage and tipping above or underground. the transformation operations necessary for its re-use, recovery or recycling.


what is the definition of waste from the Waste Framework Directive, Article 4?

take the necessary measures to ensure that waste is disposed of without endangering human health and without harming the environment, in particular without risk to:
water, air, soil, plants and animals
causing nuisance through noise and odours
adversely affecting the countryside/places of special interest.


what are the 2 qualitative waste prevention acts, from the waste framework directive?

use less toxic resources
produce less toxic wastes.


what are the 3 quantitative waste prevention acts, from the waste framework directive?

use less resources
more efficient production
produce less waste


what are the 5 ideas for overtime which support waste, from the waste framework directive?

1975 focus on disposal
1991 includes recovery and definition of waste
2006 environmental and health, and 5 stage hierarchy
Life Cycle thinking, wastes as resources
Hierarchy a priority not a guidance.


what are the origins of waste?



what is the composition of waste?

solid, liquid, semi-solid, gaseous
bio or non degradable
packaging, plastics, metals
wood, dirt, ash, garden


how toxic can waste be, and how dangerous is it for human health and the biosphere?

there is hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste. it can be infection, radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, or poisonous.


how can waste be managed?

it can be collected, sorted, reused, recycled, composted, digested, incinerated or disposed.


what is the quality protocol?

this is identifying [pint at which waste, having been fully recovered, may be regarded as a non-waste product that can be reused by business/industry, or supplied into other markets without need for waste management controls.

and, to produce a statement that confirms to business community what waste management controls must comply with.


what are the by-products of waste, by COM(2007)?

on interpretive communication on waste and by-products, in EU waste law, materials are simply waste or not waste.
production residues may or may not be a waste.
by-products are production residues that are not waste.


what are examples of by-products from COM(2007)?

blast furnace slag, but not de-sulfurization slag
animal feed from food and drink industry
flue gas desulfurization from combustion
excessive materials from primary production: rubber compound, cork shavings, plastic scrap, and similar
sawdust, wood chips, and offcuts of untreated wood from sawmills and manufacture of furniture, pallets and packaging.


what counts as waste in terms of deciding if it is waste or not?

the intention of the owner confirms if it is waste or not. what they do with the product. this is the key legal confirmation if it is waste or not.


can you pick up waste and use it as not waste?

NO, as soon as the owner puts the waste as waste, you cannot fetch it out and say it is not waste, this is the law.


why is society starting to adopt systems for waste prevention, reuse and recycling?

due to modern society being involved in consumption. more money, and the need for new things, have increased waste rapidly.
120 years ago, London was a serial waste city as people did not have money, and you didnt throw anything away.


what is the retail thinking drivers of consumption vicious circle?

pre-shop[ thinking, including needs and attriubes, and retailer choice

in store thinking, with experience, dynamics, cost, atmosphere, and advertising

point-of-purchase , signage, pack, promotions

post purchase: satisfaction, loyalty etc.

this is the circle of buying.


how have the amount of metals in mobile phones changed from 2007 to present?

in 2007 there were around 10 metals in mobile phones. now, there are over 3,400


what are the 6 waves of consumption?

these are the waves of progress of consumption, depending on access to resources. from 1985 to present.


what is the 4th wave of consumption?

this was after WW2, in 1950. this was a rapid increase, due the aviation, petrochemicals, space and electronics.


what is the 6th wave of consumption

this is the present wave, from around 2000 to present.


what are the 8 reasons for the 6th wave of consumption?

radical resource productivity
whole system design
green chemistry
industrial ecology
renewable energy
green nanotechnology


why does consumption matter in waste management?

high waste consumption leads to high waste generation


how many meals do UK families through away in a month?

24 meals


how many tonnes of food and drink are chucked out, which could have been consumed, in UK per year?

4.2 million


how is social justice linked to food waste and income?

the richer people are, the more they spend on food, and hence the more that they waste.
there is scientific evidence that the higher the waste, the higher the gross net worth per country.


how many tonnes per year of urban waste is there?

estimated 7 to 10 billion tonnes per year of urban waste. (commerical, and industrial, construction and demolition


what is C&I waste?

commercial and industrial waste


what is C&D waste?

Construction and demolition waste


what does MSW stand for?

Municipal Solid Waste


how many tonnes of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) produced a year?

around 2 billion tonnes per year.


what does MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) depend on?

the generation of MSW depends on income levels, socio-cultural patterns and climatic factors.


what is the main percentage of global treatment and disposal of waste? and what percentage is it?

Open dump


what percentage is recycling in global treatment and disposal of waste?



why does MSW compsition increase when a countries income is higher?

a lot of people eat out, and there is a significant waste in this.


how does culture change waste patterns?

different cultures changes the waste dynamic/ if a culture only eats a certain food, or doesnt drink alcohol, this changes the whole dynamic.


why is excessive data needed for waste collection?

to evaluate what has a significant effect on waste dynamics, and to see how to prevent it.


how is LDC developing going to impact global waste generation?

due to the rapid wealth change in multiple countries, this has a major consequence on waste management. they have no infrastructure on the waste.


what percentage of waste sources are from construction, demolition and exuviation (CD&E?



what percentage of waste sources come from household sectors?



who is classed as the father of waste management in the UK?

Corbyn Morris


how did waste in southampton change?

2 gentlemen cleaned up the waste. they asked the major if they could be licensed to collect all the rubbish in the streets. they paid the major to clean the streets. they then used the waste, and gained profit.
the dung from teh streets can be dried and sold as coal for burning.


what was the London waste strategy in 1751?

"one uniform piblick management"


what are the "dust-Yards"?

this is an informal recycling method in the 19th century. they organised the waste, driven by resource value and not legislation.


why was the victorian era important for waste management development?

public health was an increased focus. there are lots of legislations which were published in this era.


who is edwin chadwick?

he is a man in the victorian era, who produced the "general report on the sanitary condition of the labouring population of great britain" in 1842


what is the Dawes Report in 1929?

this was a report charged with deciding how London can best manage and minimise their waste.


what did the Dawes Report

centralised management of disposal under one body, central delivery of collection and street cleansing, major street cleansing in poorest district, and the end to crude dumping.


why was the dawes report rejected?

politicians- money and loss of economy, it would have lost profit if they stuck to it.


what is the waste hierarchy?

the waste hierarchy, an order which we should manage our wastes.

disposal > recovery > recycling > reuse > avoidance and minimisation.


what is the definition of a dumpsite?

land disposal site where solid wastes are disposed of in uncontrolled and unregulated manner.


what are the disadvantages of dumpsites?

it does not protect the environment
it is susceptible to open burning
exposed to the elements, vectors and scavengers


what is the definition of landfill, or landraise?

waste disposal site used for controlled and regulated deposit of solid waste onto or into land

this is controlled and regulated


what are the different areas of a landraise?

this is an engineered pit, where there is a bottom liner, so it doesnt contaminate the land. there is then the top cover and landfill body.


how much waste does a landraise hold?

35 million cubic metres of solid waste.


what is an incinerator

it burns waste, and has a lfe of 20 years.
it collects the heat, and takes the heat to make steam to make electricity.


what is anaerobic digestion?

you put organic waste in there with the absence of oxygen. it makes anaerobic bacteria thrive and makes biogas.


what is composting?

when you collect garden waste, and produce compost for soil and gardens.


what are the benefits of compost?

helps the garden. introduces more organic matter, and prevents running out of carbon.
it includes organic matter, minerals and water, as well as microorganisms.


what is recycling?

reprocessed in a production process for the original purpose, or for other purpose, but excluding energy recovery.

eg, if a coke bottle was used to make a fleece, this is recycling.


what is recycling NOT?

it is not collection, sorting, cleaning, curtting, crushing, separating or baling. it is when something is used for a different purpose to what it was originally made for.


what are the 2 types of recycling?

formal and informal


what is formal recycling?

this is organised, systematic, legal recycling systems. they are provided by local authorities, private sectors.
they are licensed
they provide safe recycling systems for societies, typically in developed countries.


what is informal recycling?

individuals or enterprises that are not sponsored, financed, recognised or allowed by the formal waste authorities, or who operates in violation of or in competition with formal authorities.


what can informal economic activities of informal recycling be categorised in?

self-sufficient economy (legal) and shadow economy (illegal).


what does informal recycling focus on?

primary collection and processing of reusable and recyclable materials from MSW


what work is in informal recycling?

low paid, labour intensive, low techology, small scale, regulated, unregistered and individuals or family groups.


what are the 5 different waste collection systems?

mixed waste vs segregation of materials
bring systems
household/kerbside recycling collections
logistics of collection systems


mixed waste vs segregation of materials

there are as many collection schemes as local authorities
MSW separates collection for dry recyclables
single material collection, kerbside sort system and co-mingled collection system.

organic waste (garden and kitchen)- if collected separately for composting or digestion, biodegradable waste is placed in a bin for colection.


what are bring systems, which is a waste collection system?

bring banks or sites, mini recycling centres.
dry recyclables,
household waste recycling centres or civic amenity sites.
eg. residual waste, dry recyclables, garden, hazardous, WEEE.


what is household/kerbside recycling collections?

there are multiple different systems/containers:
skips, euro-bins, wheeled bins, non-wheeled bins, rigid recycling boxes, single use bags.


what are the different frequencies of household/kerbside recycling collection?

twice weekly, weekly, fortnightly, monthly


what are the logistics of collection systems in terms of vehicles?

collection systems determine types and numbers of vehicles.
refuse collection vehicle RVC, split back vehicle, compartmentalised RVC, caged vehicle, open top vehicle.
compaction determines effectiveness of downstream processing- time to fill vehicle up, capacity, quality of recyclable and mixed waste.


what are the logistics of collection systems in terms of personnel and training?

drivers and loading crew
health and safety in loading, manual handling of heavy loads and sharps risks.


what are the logistics of collection systems in terms of costs?

legislation, country specific
containers- type and size, single use or reusable, distribution
personnel - wages, training, protective equipment.