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1

united nations statistical definition of waste

materials that are not prime products, of which the generator has no further use in terms of their own purpose of production, transformation or consumption, and of which they want to dispose.
wastes may be generated during extraction of raw materials into intermediate and final products.

2

basel convention definition of wastes:

substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of are required to be disposed of by the provisions of law

3

basel convention definition of disposal

any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use, or alterative uses.

4

cleaner production

this is related to eco-design
the conceptual and procedural approach to production that demands that all phases of the life-cycle of a product or of a process should be addressed with the objective of prevention or the minimisation of short and long-term risks to humans and the environment.

5

eco-design

a systematic approach which takes into account environmental aspects in the design and development process with the aim to reduce adverse environmental impacts.

designing waste out of the system is acknowledgement to be of particular importance to achieving real improvements in waste reducing across the life cycle.

6

industrial symbiosis

engages traditionally separate industries in a collective approach to competitive advantage involving physical exchange of materials, energy, water and/or by-products. the keys to industrial symbiosis are collaboration and the synergistic possibilities offered by geographic proximity.

7

production residues

COM92007), on interpretive communication on waste and by-products, materials are simply waste or not waste.
production residues MAY or MAY NOT be a waste.

8

product stewardship

extended or individual producer responsibility and radio frequency identification

9

waste hierarchy

ranks waste management options according ot what is best for the environment. top priority is prevention of waste, reuse, recycling, recovery and disposal

10

e-waste/WEEE

anything with plug, electric cord or battery

11

material flow analysis MFA

this method takes into account the consideration of the "metabolic" system of waste management, which means monitoring waste flows and substances within he model for waste management, and examining all inputs and outputs in the system.

12

refurbishment

the process of sustainable refurbishment includes minimising the waste of existing components.

13

household waste recycling centre (HWRC)

they take residual waste, dry recyclables, garden waste, household hazardous waste, WEEE, and bulky household waste

14

circular economy

economic system of closed loops in which raw materials, components and products lose their values as little as possible.

15

modern recovery facility (MRF)

materials reclamation facility is solid-waste management plant that processes recyclable materials to see to manufacturers as raw materials for new products

16

ferrous metals

any metal which contains iron. they have increased tensile strength and durability.

17

non-ferrous metals

no iron content, they have a higher resistance to rust and corrosion.

18

avoidable food waste

food and drink thrown away that was, at some point prior to disposal, edible

19

non-avoidable food waste

waste arising from food and drink preparation that is not, and has not been, edible under normal circumstances

20

waste audit

a review of your current methods of handling waste and should help you identify what improvements can be made to gain further value from your waste materials and achieve maximum recycling levels.

21

urban mining

the process of reclaiming compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste

22

student engagement

waste wars, blackout, southampton swap shop, environmental rock, shift your stuff

23

eco-system health

this is a balance of society, economy and the environment, in an eco-system decision making of sustainable development.

24

waste disposal authority (WDA)

in charge of the use of funds from the council tax to facilitate the disposal of municipal waste.

25

proximity principle

waste should generally be managed as near as possible to its place of production

26

linear resource management

linear recycling follows the "take-make-dispose" plan. raw materials are collected, then transformed into products that are used until they are finally discarded as waste.

27

waste recycle centres (civic amenity sites)

specialise locations where rubbish is taken to be recycled.

28

prevention of waste

focuses on reducing the amount of waste that oyu generate at source

29

food waste

the decrease in the quality of quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by retailer, food service providers and consumers

30

pay as you throw schemes

a scheme in which waste fees paid by users are modulated according to the amount of mixed waste delivered to the waste management system.

31

ageism waste management

the contrast in age differences in terms of waste management and waste hierarchy preferences

32

authorised treatment facility ATF

a permitted site carrying out treatment on WEEE

33

european WEEE regulations

regulated to reduce the amount of WEEE

34

the precautionary principle in sustainable resource management

environmental protection based on precaution, even where there is no clear evidence of harm or risk from an activity

35

extended producer responsibility in sustainable resource management

environmental protection strategy that makes the manufacturer of the product responsible for the entire life cycle of the product and especially for the take back, recycling and final dispoal of the product

36

industrial metabolism in sustainable resource management

the metabolism of industry is the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials and energy plus labour, into finished products and wastes in a more steady state condition

37

cleaner production in sustainable resource management

the process of using the resources and energies effectively

38

preparing for re-use

checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations

39

pollution prevention

pollution prevention is reducing or eliminating waste at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques and re-using mateirals rather than putting them into the waste stream.

40

upcycling

process of transforming by products, waste materials, useless or unwanted products into new mateirals or products perceived to be of greater quality.

41

industrial symbiosis

an association between two or more industrial facilities or companies in which teh wastes or byproducts of one become the raw materials of another.

42

life cycle assessment

is the process to evaluate the enviornmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and waste released to the environment and to asses the imapcts of those energy and material used and released to the enviornment.

43

Green SCM

green supply chain management : GrSCM can reduce the ecological impact of industrial activity while strengthening performance on quality, cost, reliability, performance and energy utilisation efficiency.

44

reverse logistics

all activity associated with a product/service after the point of sale.

45

waste value recovery

when your main aim is replacing a non waste material you would have used in your operation with a waste material that performs the same function

46

service-dominant logic

the application of competence for teh benefit of another party, focused on the transition in understanding bu

47

service-dominant logic

the application of competence for teh benefit of another party, focused on the transition in understanding business from "goods" to a "service" persepctive, wehre the exchange is thought of in terms of "value" rather than tangible product

48

end of life management

the management of all activities required at the end of life phase of a product

49

eco labelling

an eco label is a label which identifies overall environmental preference of a product (good or service) within a product category based on life cycle considerations.

50

incineration

burning of waste

51

anaerobic digestion

process in sewage treatment designed to reduce the volume of sewage sludge and make it suitable for subsequent use

52

composting

the recycling of organic waste such as vegetation and food waste. reduces the amount of waste going to landfill

53

environmental management system

a management system that plans, schedules, implements and monitors those activities aimed at improving environmetnal performance.

54

carbon footprint

a measure of the total amount of CO2 and CH4 emissions of a defined population, system, or activity, considered all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system, or activity of interest. calculated as CO2 equipment's using the relevant 100-year global warming potential.

55

BAT

best available technique or technology depending on application

56

BPEO

best practicable environmental options

57

proximity principle

the principle that waste should be managed as near as practicable to its place of origin.

58

adaptive reuse

refers to repurposing an existing structure of new use

59

direct resale

reuse of product or component in the same form for the same function

60

repair

returning a faulty/ broken product back to useable state

61

refurbish

disassembling products and inspecting parts and components to return whole product to satisfactory condition

62

repurpose

when products that reach their end of use are adapted for a different or entirely new purpose than which they were originally designed

63

possibly unavoidable food waste

food and drink taht some people eat and others do not, or that can be eaten when a food is prepared in one way but not in another. (bread crusts and potato skins).

64

leftovers

foods post-preparation that have been bitten unto, prepared food, or food consisting of different components which have been served before

65

whole unused food

things that have not been consumed at all, in sales packaging or not

66

part consumed food

things that have been consumed in part ; whole single items of a food which is usually sold bunched, cut food, part consumed food in packaging other than original sales-packaging

67

set out rate

number of households using the scheme per collection, divided by the total number of households served by the scheme

68

participation ratio

number of households using the scheme at least once in four weeks, divided by the total number of households served by the scheme

69

stakeholders

all of those who have rights, responsibilities and interest in the issues

70

service factors

the systems, providers and enablers of participation in an environmental practice

71

behaviour factors

who we are and our disposition towards environmental practice

72

ISB Model

Infrastructure, service and behaviour model

73

EEE

electrical electronic equipment

74

producer of WEEE

organisation manufacturing, distributing, re-branding or importing EEE

75

PCS

producer compliance scheme, organisation meeting producer responsibilities

76

stockpiled device

has functional value but is unused and kept

77

hoarded device

does not work but is kept, recyclable but not reusable in its current state without

78

ATF

authorised treatment facilities, any facility carrying out treatment of WEEE and which is licensed permitted.

79

AATF

approved authorised treatment facilities, ATF's that have applied to issue WEEE evidence

80

AEs

approved exporters, any company who exports WEEE for treatment and or recover and recycling can apply to become an AE

81

BAT

best available techniques

82

by-product

substance of object, resulting from a production process, the primary aim of which is not the production of that item.

83

bulky waste

waste that exceeds 25 kg in weight or waste which cannot fit into receptacles for household waste

84

product stewardship

product's health, safety, and environmental management through its lifecycle, taking into account existing and emerging regulatory requirement, societal pressures and best business practices.

85

eco-design

involves designing or redesigning products, services, processes or systems to avoid or repair damage to the environment, society and the economy.

86

waste disposal authority

in charge of the use of funds from council tax, to facilitate the disposal of municipal waste.

87

proximity principle

suggests that waste should generally be disposed of as near to its place of origin as possible. involves the recognition that the transportation of wastes can have a significant environmental impact.

88

civic amenity services

a place provided by the waste disposal authority at which persons resident in the area may deposit their "household waste".

89

kerbside collections

service provided to households, in urban and suburban areas, of collecting and disposing of household waste and recyclables.

90

precautionary principle

environmental protection based on precaution, even where there is no clear evidence of harm or risk from an activity

91

extended producer responsibility

a policy approach under which producers are given a significant responsibility – financial and/or physical – for the treatment or disposal of post-consumer products

92

cleaner production

The process of using the resources and energies effectively along with the elimination of toxic raw materials and reduction in toxicity of all emissions and solid wastes.

93

preparing for reuse

checking, cleaning or repairing recovery operations, by which products or components of products that have become waste are prepared so that they can be re-used without any other pre- processing

94

upcycling

also known as creative reuse, is the process of transforming by-products, waste materials, useless, or unwanted products into new materials or products perceived to be of greater quality, such as artistic value or environmental value.

95

designated collection facility

means any establishment or undertaking carrying out collection operations and which is approved by the Secretary of State under regulation 70; Sample 1.

96

linear resource management

raw materials are collected, then transformed into products that are used until they are finally discarded as waste.

We take raw materials from the earth, use these to make products to sell and, once these products have reached the end of their useful life, we dispose of them

97

life cycle assessment

process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment.

98

industrial ecology

also known as circular economy is an environmentally sustainable model for managing industrialized/logistic zones. In a closed loop system, activities, functions, and services are connected, instead of being separated from each other.

99

MRF, materials recycling facility

may be designed to handle materials collected from a single municipal/household kerbside collection system, or more typically, to sort materials from a number of kerbside collection programmes

100

siting waste management facilities

Solid waste management facilities are landfills, solid waste disposal areas, borrow pit reclamation areas, compost areas, material recovery areas, volume reduction plants, transfer stations, waste tire processing or collection area, or other facility, the purpose of which is recovery, disposal, recycling, depositing

101

waste management

the collection, transportation, handling and disposal process of dealing with removal of human waste. Waste management, generally, covers all aspects of human waste including waste reduction.

102

waste framework directive

sets the basic concepts and definitions related to waste management, including definitions of waste, recycling and recovery. Preventing waste is the preferred option, and sending waste to landfill should be the last resort.

103

dumpsite

land disposal site where solid wastes are disposed of in uncontrolled and unregulated manner

104

landfill or landraise

waste disposal site used for controlled and regulated deposit of solid waste onto or into land

105

incineration plant

any stationary or mobile technical unit and equipment dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste with or without the recovery of the combustion heat generated.

106

anaerobic digestion

a process through which bacteria break down organic matter—such as animal manure, wastewater biosolids, and food wastes—in the absence of oxygen.

107

composting

the recycling of organic wastes such as vegetation and food waste, reduces the amount of waste going to landfill and is therefore a rapidly growing sector.

108

formal recycling

organised, systematic, legal recycling systems, provided by the local authorities and private sectors. formal recycling is licenced.

109

informal recycling

individuals or enterprises who are not sponsored, financed, recognised or allowed by the formal waste authorities, or who operates in violation of or in competition with formal authorities

110

bring banks or sites

household or similar waste collected by a WDA, WCA or UA either directly or via any arrangements that the WDA, WCA or UA makes in this regard.

111

reuse

any operation to by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were conceived.

112

third sector

jobs, skills, social equity

113

urban mining

the process of reclaiming compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste

114

SUWMC

southern universities waste management consortium

115

waste audit

a review of your current methods of handling waste and should help you to identify what improvements can be made to: Gain further value from your waste materials. Achieve maximum recycling levels

116

ecosystem-based decision making

society, economy and environment are all part of eco-system helath. they all need to be taken into consideration

117

frontier civilisation

one-way flow of materials and energy, with a high throughput. can be non-renewable and renewable.

118

sustainable civilisaiton

cyclical flows of materials with appropriate energy usageg, with low throughput and renewable only energy.

119

the waste producer

we all produce waste, we all must take responsibility

120

LAWDC

local authority waste disposal companies

121

visible factors in MSW

factors taht are measurable by specific indicators or scale, quantifiable my measuring methods, considered in decision making and implemetation process

122

invisible factors in MSW

factors that are not considered at all in any of waste management processes, however have influence the social behavioural and philosophical perceptions on solid waste management and practice.

123

PESTLE

political, environmental, social, technological, legal, economic. these are all factors in SWM

124

industrial ecology Ian's

the study of the flows of materials and energy in industry and consumer activities, of the effect of these flows on the environment, and of teh influence of economic, political, regualtory and social factors, on the flow, use and transformation of resources.

125

an umbrella concept in product based initiatives

eco-design, LCA, industrial ecology is the basis on which industrial symbiolsis and industrial metabolism are found .

126

sustainable consumption and production

more sustainable consumption and production patterns are essential for the protection of the climate, ecosystems, and human helath,

127

CSR

corporate social responsibility, the responsibility of enterprises for their impact on society.

128

dematerialisation

the reduction of the amount of materials or the embedded energy of the industrial outputs, considered as final products and waste/by-products

129

green chemistry

the design, development and implementation of chemcial products and processes to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human helath and the enviornment

130

pollution prevention

reducing and elimiating waste at the source by modifying production processes, promoting the use of non-toxic or less-toxic substances, implementing conservation techniques and re-using materials rather tahn putting them into the waste stream.

131

natural capitalism

business model based on responsible, sustainable practice while increasing profits and gaining competitive advantage. based on 4 principles: increasing resource productivity, elimiating waste, selling service rather than product and reinvesting in natural capital.

132

eco-industrial parks

a community of businesses located on a common property, who seek enhanced environmental, economic and social performance through collaboration in managing environmental and resource issues.

133

extended producer responsibility (EPR)

making the producers responsible for their products in the end of the products life cycle

134

individual producers responsibility (IPR)

each producer should be made individually responsible for his OWN products, and those products only

135

radio frequency identification (RFID)

the successor technology of the barcode system, which enables tracking of products and will lead to better inventory/supply chain management and easier procurement processes.

136

Green SCM

green supply chain management, which reduce the ecological impact of industrial activity, while strengthening performance on quality, cost, reliability, performance and energy utilisation efficiency.

137

reverse logistics

all activity associated with a product/service after the point of sale

138

product service systems

a system of products, services, supporting networks and infrastructure that is de

139

service-dominant logic

the application of competence for the benefit of another party, focuses on the transition in understanding business from a "goods" to a "service" perspective, wehre the exchange is thought of in terms of "value" rather than tangible product

140

end-of-life management

the management of all activities required at the end of life phase of a product

141

eco-labelling

an eco-label is a label which identifies overall environmental preference of a product within a product category based on life cycle considerations.

142

industrial metabolism

the whole integrated collection of physical processes that convert raw materials and energy, plus labour, into finished products and wastes in a steady-state condition

143

life cycle assessment

a method for detecting environmental relevance of products, processes or services in their life cycle.

144

environmental impact assessment

the EIA procedure ensures that environmental consequences of projects are identified and assessed, and recommendations of appropriate mitigating measures are made, before authorisation for their development is given

145

environmental management system

a management system that plans, schedules, implements and monitors those activities aimed at improving environmental performance.

146

carbon footprint

a measure of teh total amoaunt of CO2 and CH4 emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest.

147

strategic environmental assessment

SEA is intended to increase the consideration of environmental issues during decision making. it identifies the significant environmental effects that are likely to result from the implementation of the plan or alternative approaches to the plan.

148

BPEO

The Best Practicable Environmental Option is the idea that there is a unique, supremely beneficial—or least environmentally damaging—method of disposing wastes in a cost-effective manner, in both the short- and long-term

149

TSO

Role of Third Sector Organsiations. this refers to bulky waste

150

adaptive reuse

repurposing an existing structure for new use, used in architecture.

151

recoverability

measures whether products can be recovered after use

152

functionality

average remaining useful life of a product at end-of-use compared to its designed lifetime

153

technological maturity

degree of technological change or cycle of new generations of product

154

components

number of unique parts of different materials in product

155

level of integration

independence of product components

156

KPI's

key performance indicators, used to measure performance in a repeatable way that will produce results which can be reliably compared

157

agricultural production

food losses dur to mechanical damage and/or spillage during harvest operation

158

food processing

food losses including losses and wastes in the market system

159

food consumption

food waste including losses and waste during consumption at the household level

160

circular economy Ian

a circular economy is al alternative to a traditional linear economy (make, use, dispose), in which we keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life.

161

cascading, circular economy

diversified re-use across the value chain, substituting previously used virgin materials with existing materials.

162

urban mining

process of reclaiming compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste

163

Artificial intelligence

the science of making inanimate objects smart

164

sustainable development

meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

165

MFA material flow analysis

method takes into account the consideration of the “metabolic” system of waste management, which means monitoring waste flows and substances within the model for waste management, and examining all inputs and outputs in the system