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Flashcards in Behavioral Science Deck (18):
1

Cross-sectional study

observational. Collects data from a group of people to assess frequency of disease ( and related risk factors)

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Case-control study

Observational and retrospective. Compares a group of people with disease to a group without disease. Odds ratio

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Cohort study

Observational and prospective or retrospective. Compares a group with a given exposure or risk factor to a group without such exposure.  Relative risk

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Diagnostic test evaluation

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Odds ratio

(a/c)/(b/d)   Case-control studies

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Relative risk

(a/(a+b))/(c/(c+d))  cohort studies

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Relative risk reduction

1 - RR

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Attributable risk 

AR = a/(a+b) - c/(c+d)

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Absolute risk reduction

the difference in risk (not the proportion) attributable to the intervention as compared to a control (e.g. if 8% of people who receive a placebo vaccine develop flu vs 2% of people who receive a flu vaccine, then ARR= 8%-2%=6%

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Number needed to treat

1/ARR

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Number needed to harm

1/AR

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Berkson bias

A study only looking at inpatients

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Hawthorne effect

groups who know they're being studied behave differently than they would otherwise

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Pygmalion effect

(self-fulfilling prophecy) - Researcher's belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of that treatment

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Statistal hypotheses

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Power

1-B - Probability of rejecting the null hypotheses when it is false. increase power and decrease B by increasing sample size, increase expected effect size, and increasing precision of measurment

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Confidence Interval

CI=range from [mean-Z(SEM)] to [mean+Z(SEM)] for 95% CI Z=1.96, 99% Z =2.58

SEM = sigma/sqrt(n) sigma=stdDev

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