Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (24):
GFR corresponds with Salt (Na), Sugar (glucocorticoids), and sex (androgens)
Adrenal cortex and medulla
Zona Glomerulosa - Renin-Angiotensin ; Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata - ACTH, CRH ; Cortisol, Sex hormones
Zona Reticularis - ACTH, CRH ; Sex hormones (androgens)
Chromaffin cells - Preganglionic sympathetic fibers ; Catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine)
Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults
Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children. Rarely causes hypertension
Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
Secretes vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin, made in the hypothalamus and shipped to posterior pituitary via neurophysins (carrier proteins). Derived from neuroectoderm
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
Secretes FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, GH, melanotropin (MSH). Derived from oral ectoderm (Rathke pouch). a subunit - hormone subunit common to TSH, LH, FSH, and hCG. b subunit - determines hormone specificty.
Acidophils - GH, prolactin
B-FLAT: Basophils - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
Adrenal steroids and congenital adrenal hyperplasias
Signaling pathways of endocrine hormones
cAMP - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, CRH, hCG, ADH (V2-receptor), MSH, PTH, calcitonin GHRH, glucagon.
cGMP - ANP, NO (EDRF) (think vasodilators)
IP3 - GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH (V1-receptor), Angiotensin II, Gastrin
Steroid receptor - Vitamin D, Estrogen, Testosterone, T3/T4, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Progesterone
Intrinsic tyrosine kinase - Insulin, IGF-1, FGF, PDGF, EGF
Receptor-associated tyrosine kinase - Prolactin, Immunomodulators (e.g., cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN), GH
excess iodine temporarily inhibits thyroid peroxidase -> dec iodine organification -> dec T3/T4 production
Acute primary adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal hemorrhage associated with Neisseria meningitids septicemia, DIC, and endotoxi shock.
Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in children, usually <4 years old. Originates from neural crest cells. Occurs anywhere along the sympathetic chain. Most common presentation is abdominal distension and a firm, irregular mass that can cross the midline (vs. Wilms tumor , which is smooth and unilateral). Homovanillic acid (HVA), a breakdown product of dopamine, inc in urine. Bombesin +. Less likely to develop hypertension. Associated with overexpression of N-myc oncogene.
Stress-induced catecholamine surge seen as a srious complication of Graves disease and other hyperthyroid disorders. Presents with agitation, delirium, fever, diarrhea, coma, and tachyarrhythmia (cause of death). May see inc ALP due to inc bone turnover. Treat with the 3 P's: B-blockers (propanolol), Propylthiouracil, corticosteroids (Prednisone)
Most common, excellent prognosis. Empty-appearing nuclei ("Orphan Annie" eyes), psammoma bodies, nuclear grooves. Inc risk with RET and BRAF mutations, childhood irradiation.
Good prognosis, invades thyroid capsule (unlike follicular adenoma), uniform follicles.
From parafollicular "C cells"; produces calcitonin, sheets of cells in an amyloid stroma, associated with MEN 2A and 2B (RET mutations)
Older patients; invades local structures, very poor prognosis
Associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis