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Flashcards in Behavioral Science/Ethics Deck (69):
1

Case-Control Study

Control includes any subject WITHOUT disease regardless of exposure

2

Attrition bias

(loss of subjects in the middle of a study) is a form of selection bias

3

Lead-time Bias

Diagnosing a disease earlier so it seems like increased survival

4

Informed Consent Should be Obtained by _________

The person performing the procedure

5

Prenatal care for a minor ________

Does not require consent
-Neither does contraceptives, emergencies, or STDs

6

Hospice requires _______

Prognosis of less than 6 months

7

For Screening Tests: high _________

Sensitivity (to rule out disease)

8

For Confirmatory Tests: high _______

Specificity (to rule in disease)

9

Number needed to treat

Inverse of absolute risk reduction

10

Relative Risk (RR) and Relative Risk Reduction (RRR)

RR = Risk in exposed/ Risk in unexposed
RRR = 1- RR

11

Standard Error

Decreases as sample size increases

12

Constructing Table

- Disease on top (+ - )
- Test on side (+ - )

13

Sensitivity

true +/ all diseased (rule out)

14

Specificity

true - / all normal (rule in)

15

Positive predictive value

PPV = true + / all +

16

Negative predictive value

NPV = true - / all –

17

Confidence interval

Significant if it does not contain 0 (null value)
- 95%: mean +/- 1.96*SD/sqrt(n)
- 99%: mean +/-2.58*SD/sqrt(n)

18

Power = 1-Beta

- Beta corresponds to a type II error (saying that there IS NO difference when one exists)
- Power is the probability of concluding that there IS a difference, when it DOES exist
- Increases with sample size

19

Prevalence with PPV and NPV

PPV changes in the direction of prevalence (increased prevalence means increased PPV, but sensitivity and specificity don’t change)
NPV would decrease

20

Case Control

- The odd of exposure to a certain characteristic is compared between affected/diseased individuals and unaffected (controls)
- Exposure odds ratio

21

Cohort Study

- Individuals with and without exposures are followed over time to determine the disease incidence
- Relative risk
- Prospective or Retrospective

22

Analysis Types

-Test: for 2 groups
- ANOVA (analysis of variance): for more than 2 groups
- Chi-square: comparing categories

23

Number Needed to Harm

1/ attributable risk

24

Relative Risk

(a/a+b)/(c/c+d)

25

Attributable Risk

(a/a+b)-(c/c+d)

26

Odds Ratio

ad/bc
OR greater than 1 signifies increases odds/risk/likelihood so If the 95% CI range does not include 1, then the difference is statistically significant

27

Precision and Accuracy

Precision = reliability
Accuracy = correctness

28

Lowering the cutoff point increases _______

Sensitivity

29

ARP Exposed (attributable risk percent in exposed)

100*(RR-1/RR)

30

Matching

A method used in case-control studies to reduce Confounding bias

31

Sensitivity

(a)/(a+c)

32

Specificity

(d)/(b+d)

33

Drug Trial Phases: I-IV

I: safe?
II: effective?
III: better than current?
IV: safe long term?

34

Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

= standard deviation/ sqrt(sample size)

35

Positive Skew

Mean will be higher than median because longer tail on right

36

Negative Skew

Mean will be lower than median because of longer tail on left

37

Type I error (alpha)

False Positive (telling a man he is pregnant)

38

Type II error (1- beta)

False Negative (telling a very pregnant woman she is not pregnant)

39

If the Confidence Intervals between 2 groups overlaps:

No significant difference exists

40

If the Confidence Intervals between 2 groups does not overlap:

Significant difference exists

41

If the 95% CI for a mean difference includes 0

No significant Difference

42

If the 95% CI for odds ratio or relative risk includes 1

No difference between the compared things

43

Medicare

Elderly and End stage renal disease

44

Medicaid

Low income

45

Minors do not need parental consent if: (3)

Legally emancipated
(married, military, or self supporting)

46

Situations where parental consent is not needed: (3)

STDs/contraception/prenatal care
Addiction
Emergency/trauma

47

Exceptions to Confidentiality:

Potential harm to others or to self
Reportable diseases, child or elder abuse, impair automobile drivers

48

Reportable Diseases

STDs, TB, hepatitis, food poisoning
- physician warns public official who notifies people at risk

49

Apgar Score

- Total of 10, at least 7 qualifies as good
- assess at 1 min and 5 min
Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration

50

Low Birth Weight

less than 2500 g

51

Suicide Rate: increased in ________

white men greater than 85 yrs

52

Death before 1 yr of age

Congenital defect, preterm, or SIDS

53

Cubes Stacked

age* 3

54

Tricycle

3 yrs

55

Hopping on 1 foot

4 yrs

56

Buttons, Zippers, or Grooming Self

5 yrs

57

Drawing (circle, line, or stick figure)

4 yrs

58

Imaginary Friends

4 yrs

59

Cooperative Play

4 yrs

60

Parallel Play

2-3 yrs

61

1000 words/ Complete sentences

3 yrs/4yrs

62

Stranger anxiety vs Separation anxiety

Stranger: 6 mon
Separation: 9 mon

63

Pincer Grasp

10 mon

64

200 words/2 words

2 yrs

65

Feeds self w/ fork and spoon

~2 yrs

66

Effect Modification

When the effect of an exposure on an outcome is affected by another variable
- NOT a bias

67

ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic)

Sensitivity (true positive) vs 1- Specificity (false positive)
- area under curve represents the accuracy of the test
(should look like a myoglobin curve)

68

Open Label Trial

Clinical trial in which you know you are getting the drug (not blinded)

69

Case Series

No control in study