Flashcards in Behavioral Science/Ethics Deck (69):

1

## Case-Control Study

### Control includes any subject WITHOUT disease regardless of exposure

2

## Attrition bias

### (loss of subjects in the middle of a study) is a form of selection bias

3

## Lead-time Bias

### Diagnosing a disease earlier so it seems like increased survival

4

## Informed Consent Should be Obtained by _________

### The person performing the procedure

5

## Prenatal care for a minor ________

###
Does not require consent

-Neither does contraceptives, emergencies, or STDs

6

## Hospice requires _______

### Prognosis of less than 6 months

7

## For Screening Tests: high _________

### Sensitivity (to rule out disease)

8

## For Confirmatory Tests: high _______

### Specificity (to rule in disease)

9

## Number needed to treat

### Inverse of absolute risk reduction

10

## Relative Risk (RR) and Relative Risk Reduction (RRR)

###
RR = Risk in exposed/ Risk in unexposed

RRR = 1- RR

11

## Standard Error

### Decreases as sample size increases

12

## Constructing Table

###
- Disease on top (+ - )

- Test on side (+ - )

13

## Sensitivity

### true +/ all diseased (rule out)

14

## Specificity

### true - / all normal (rule in)

15

## Positive predictive value

### PPV = true + / all +

16

## Negative predictive value

### NPV = true - / all –

17

## Confidence interval

###
Significant if it does not contain 0 (null value)

- 95%: mean +/- 1.96*SD/sqrt(n)

- 99%: mean +/-2.58*SD/sqrt(n)

18

## Power = 1-Beta

###
- Beta corresponds to a type II error (saying that there IS NO difference when one exists)

- Power is the probability of concluding that there IS a difference, when it DOES exist

- Increases with sample size

19

## Prevalence with PPV and NPV

###
PPV changes in the direction of prevalence (increased prevalence means increased PPV, but sensitivity and specificity don’t change)

NPV would decrease

20

## Case Control

###
- The odd of exposure to a certain characteristic is compared between affected/diseased individuals and unaffected (controls)

- Exposure odds ratio

21

## Cohort Study

###
- Individuals with and without exposures are followed over time to determine the disease incidence

- Relative risk

- Prospective or Retrospective

22

## Analysis Types

###
-Test: for 2 groups

- ANOVA (analysis of variance): for more than 2 groups

- Chi-square: comparing categories

23

## Number Needed to Harm

### 1/ attributable risk

24

## Relative Risk

### (a/a+b)/(c/c+d)

25

## Attributable Risk

### (a/a+b)-(c/c+d)

26

## Odds Ratio

###
ad/bc

OR greater than 1 signifies increases odds/risk/likelihood so If the 95% CI range does not include 1, then the difference is statistically significant

27

## Precision and Accuracy

###
Precision = reliability

Accuracy = correctness

28

## Lowering the cutoff point increases _______

### Sensitivity

29

## ARP Exposed (attributable risk percent in exposed)

### 100*(RR-1/RR)

30

## Matching

### A method used in case-control studies to reduce Confounding bias

31

## Sensitivity

### (a)/(a+c)

32

## Specificity

### (d)/(b+d)

33

## Drug Trial Phases: I-IV

###
I: safe?

II: effective?

III: better than current?

IV: safe long term?

34

## Standard Error of the Mean (SEM)

### = standard deviation/ sqrt(sample size)

35

## Positive Skew

### Mean will be higher than median because longer tail on right

36

## Negative Skew

### Mean will be lower than median because of longer tail on left

37

## Type I error (alpha)

### False Positive (telling a man he is pregnant)

38

## Type II error (1- beta)

### False Negative (telling a very pregnant woman she is not pregnant)

39

## If the Confidence Intervals between 2 groups overlaps:

### No significant difference exists

40

## If the Confidence Intervals between 2 groups does not overlap:

### Significant difference exists

41

## If the 95% CI for a mean difference includes 0

### No significant Difference

42

## If the 95% CI for odds ratio or relative risk includes 1

### No difference between the compared things

43

## Medicare

### Elderly and End stage renal disease

44

## Medicaid

### Low income

45

## Minors do not need parental consent if: (3)

###
Legally emancipated

(married, military, or self supporting)

46

## Situations where parental consent is not needed: (3)

###
STDs/contraception/prenatal care

Addiction

Emergency/trauma

47

## Exceptions to Confidentiality:

###
Potential harm to others or to self

Reportable diseases, child or elder abuse, impair automobile drivers

48

## Reportable Diseases

###
STDs, TB, hepatitis, food poisoning

- physician warns public official who notifies people at risk

49

## Apgar Score

###
- Total of 10, at least 7 qualifies as good

- assess at 1 min and 5 min

Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration

50

## Low Birth Weight

### less than 2500 g

51

## Suicide Rate: increased in ________

### white men greater than 85 yrs

52

## Death before 1 yr of age

### Congenital defect, preterm, or SIDS

53

## Cubes Stacked

### age* 3

54

## Tricycle

### 3 yrs

55

## Hopping on 1 foot

### 4 yrs

56

## Buttons, Zippers, or Grooming Self

### 5 yrs

57

## Drawing (circle, line, or stick figure)

### 4 yrs

58

## Imaginary Friends

### 4 yrs

59

## Cooperative Play

### 4 yrs

60

## Parallel Play

### 2-3 yrs

61

## 1000 words/ Complete sentences

### 3 yrs/4yrs

62

## Stranger anxiety vs Separation anxiety

###
Stranger: 6 mon

Separation: 9 mon

63

## Pincer Grasp

### 10 mon

64

## 200 words/2 words

### 2 yrs

65

## Feeds self w/ fork and spoon

### ~2 yrs

66

## Effect Modification

###
When the effect of an exposure on an outcome is affected by another variable

- NOT a bias

67

## ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic)

###
Sensitivity (true positive) vs 1- Specificity (false positive)

- area under curve represents the accuracy of the test

(should look like a myoglobin curve)

68

## Open Label Trial

### Clinical trial in which you know you are getting the drug (not blinded)

69