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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (27):
1

Multidrug Resistance Gene (MDR):

P glycoprotein ATP dependent efflux pump

2

Vast majority of head and neck cancers

Squamous cell carcinomas

3

Dystrophic Calcification

Hallmark of cell injury (eg. Aortic valve calcifications due to aging or damaged valves)
- Calcium buildup

4

Rb gene mutation

retinoblastoma & osteosarcoma

5

MEN1

Parathyroid, Pancreas, Pituitary

6

MEN 2A

medullary thyroid, pheochromo, parathyroid

7

MEN 2B

medullary thyroid, pheochromo, marfanoid, neuromas (mucosal)

8

Metalloproteinases

degrade components of the ECM and basement membrane (collagen and laminin) → allows penetration of tumor through BM → invasion
- Excess MMP activity and myofibroblast (fibroblasts with actin) accumulation in wound margins → contractures

9

Psammoma Bodies

- Papillary Thyroid
- Serous cystadenocarcinoma of Ovary
- Meningioma
- Mesothelioma (malignant)

10

Localized Amyloidosis

- Cardiac Atria: ANP
Thyroid: calcitonin
- Pancreatic Islets: amylin
- Cerebrum/Cerebral vessels: B-amyloid
- Pituitary: prolactin

11

Agglutinins: Cold

(IgM): mycoplasma, mono, CLL

12

Agglutinins: Warm

(IgG): SLE, CLL, drugs (methyldopa)

13

Fluid filled cavity or air-fluid line

abscess

14

Bcl2

antiapoptotic: inhibits APAF (an activator of caspase)
- if decreased → less caspase → tumor growth

15

BAX and BAK

Pro-apoptotic

16

FAS (CD95)

FAS (CD95) bound by fas ligand → necessary for negative selection on thymic medulla
- Defect → autoimmune disorders

17

Zone 3 Susceptible to:

hypoxia and toxin metabolites (near central vein)

18

C-kit

GIST, cytokine receptor for stem cell factor (oncogene, 1 hit)

19

BRAF

melanoma, serine/threonine kinase (oncogene, 1 hit)

20

Myc

all (n-, c-, L-) are transcription factors (oncogenes, 1 hit)

21

RET, BCR-abl, HER2/Neu

all are tyrosine kinase (oncogene, 1 hit)
- Ret: MEN 2A and 2B

22

Ras

GTPase (oncogene, 1 hit)

23

PGE2

raises temperature set point (fever) during inflammation

24

PGE2 and Bradykinin

sensitize sensory nerve endings -> pain

25

Vimentin

IF found in mesenchymal cells

26

Liquefactive Necrosis

characteristic of hypoxic injury to the brain

27

Tissue Ischemia (ion balance)

Hallmark: Ca2+ accumulation in cell
defective Na/K ATPase so:
high extracellular K+