Immunology Flashcards Preview

Quick Notes for Step 1 > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (86):
1

Mutations in Fas

Decrease extrinsic apoptosis pathway → decreased apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes → autoimmune processes

2

BRCA

- Tumor suppressor (2 hit) DNA repair gene
- Repairs double stranded DNA breaks
- AD inheritance
- Risk of breast and ovarian cancer

3

ERBB/HER2

- Protooncogene (1 hit) Tyrosine kinase receptor
- Acquired (not inherited)

4

MPO (myeloperoxidase)

- In neutrophil granules catalyzes intracellular killing by producing bleach (HOCl) from H2O2 and chlorine
- Gives sputum greenish color

5

Acute Graft Rejection

Dense interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate

6

Chronic Graft Rejection

Scant inflammatory cells + interstitial fibrosis

7

IL-2 exclusively produced by:

Antigen-stimulated lymphocytes

8

Tumor Suppressors: 2 Hit Hypothesis

If inherited syndrome, one hit is genetic, 2nd hit is sporadic

9

Invariant Chain

During antigen processing in macrophages, invariant chain of the MHC II is removed and replaced by an external proteins in acidified endosomes

10

Ataxia Telengectasia

DNA more susceptible to breaks from ionizing radiation

11

Thymus derived from

3rd Pharyngeal Pouch

12

PSGN: Hypersensitivity Type ___

Type 3 Hypersensitivity: immuno complexes deposit as humps on EM

13

Serum Sickness: Hypersensitivity Type ____

Type 3 hypersensitivity
- characterized by vasculitis, from a reaction to nonhuman proteins (eg. Infliximab)

14

IgG4

- membranous nephropathy
- Reidel thyroiditis
- autoimmune pancreatitis

15

X-linker Agammaglobulinemia

(Bruton): mutation in tyrosine kinase that blocks B-cell maturation → immunodeficiency

16

IFN- a and IFN-b

- stimulates neighboring cells to synthesize antiviral proteins that degrade intracellular mRNA (host and viral) and impair protein synthesis

17

Chediak Higashi

failure of phagosome-lysosome fusion → recurrent infection
- Albinism, neurological defects, and infections

18

Neutrophilia may occur w/:

Glucocorticoid use
- due to “demargination” of leukocytes previously attached to wall

19

IL-2 Transcription inhibitor/Inhibit calcineurin

Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus

20

Inhibits signaling/Inhibits MTOR

Sirolimus

21

Binds FKBP

Sirolimus and Tacrolimus

22

CGD

Dx: DHR (preferred) or NBT
- Recurrent infections of catalase + enzymes (because defect in NADPH oxidase)
- Candida, Staph, Klebsiella, Burkholderia

23

p-ANCA/MPO

Churg Strauss and Microscopic polyangiitis
- Churg: allergy, and granulomatous, adult onset asthma, eosinophilia, and neuropathy
- Polyangitis: use cyclophosphamide (also for polyarteritis)

24

c-ANCA/PR3

Wegeners: upper respiratory and granulomatous, use cyclophosphamide

25

Tight binding of neutrophils and crawling via:

ICAM (to LFA, MAC1) or VCAM (to VLA)

26

Transmigration via:

PECAM (aka CD31)

27

Margination and Rolling via:

E and P selectins (on endothelium) to sialyly lewis on leukocytes

28

DiGeorge: Abnormal Development of _______

3rd and 4th Pharyngeal Pouches

29

HyperIgM

defective CD40L on Th cell → no isotype switching so low IgG, IgE, and IgA (high IgM)

30

Hypersensitivity: Immediate, IgE, eosinophilia

Type I

31

Hypersensitivity: Autoantibodies

Type II

32

Hypersensitivity: Immune complex deposites

Type III

33

Hypersensitivity: T-cell or delayed (TH1 or CD8/CTL)

Type IV

34

Leukotriene B4

attracts neutrophils

35

Leukotriene C4, D4, E4

Bronchoconstriction

36

C5a, IL8, and Kallikrein

released in response to bacteria

37

IL-6

mediates inflammatory response (acute phase protein)

38

IL-10

anti-inflammatory

39

TGF-B

anti-inflammatory

40

IL-2

stimulates growth/proliferation of helper T cells and B cells (which activate macrophages and NK cells)

41

IFN-gamma

activates macrophages

42

TH2 Cytokines: B cell class switching

- IL-4 → IgE and IgG
- IL-5 → IgA and eosinophils

43

Selective IgA Deficiency

- MC deficiency
-anaphylaxis to IgA containing products (should get blood products from another IgA deficient person)

44

Phenotypic Mixing

2 viruses that infect the same cell can make resulting progeny that can have nucleocapsid proteins from one strain and the genome form another (but there is not change in viral genome so the next generation will go back to the unmixed phenotype)

45

T Cells in Lymph Node

Paracortex

46

Hypercalcemia in Granulomatous Diseases

In granulomatous diseases (eg. Sarcoidosis), macrophages are activated and they have increased activity of 1-alpha hydroxylase → hypercalcemia

47

During anaphylaxis, Mast Cells Release:

histamine, heparin, and tryptase (specific)

48

HLA A3

Hemochromatosis

49

HLA B27

psoriatric arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, IBD, reactive (reiter) arthritis (PAIR)

50

HLA DQ2/8

Celiac

51

HLA DR4

Rheumatoid Arthritis

52

HLA DR2

Autoimmune type diseases: Goodpasture, SLE, MS, hay fever

53

HLA DR3

Graves and SLE

54

HLA DR3/4

Type I Diabetes

55

HLA DR 5

Pernicious anemia, Hashimoto

56

3 Actions of Antibodies

opsonize for phagocytosis, neutralize to prevent attachment, or activate complement to kill

57

Antibody: Idiotype

the specific antigen it binds

58

Antibody: Allotype

Minor changes in constant regions of Ab that are different in each person
- IgG in one person will be different from another
- Used in paternity testing

59

Antibody: Isotype

Class of antibody (E, M, D, G, A)

60

Antibody: Complement

Complement binds to Fc region of heavy chain

61

Antibody: Heavy chain

VDJ-C; Light chain: VJ

62

IgA

Prevents attachment to mucosa (does not fix complement)

63

IgE: Hypersensitivity vs Helminth

- If hypersensitivity reaction: then does not activate complement, only crosslinks and causes degranulation of Mast cells and basophils
- If activated by TH2, then does complement to kill helminth

64

C3b

Opsonization (also done by IgG)

65

C5a

Neutrophil chemotaxis (also anaphylaxis)

66

DAF (CD55) and C1 esterase inhibitor

Prevent complement

67

Macrophages release:

IL-1, 6, 8, 12, TNFa

68

TH1 activates:

NK cells, Macrophages, and CTLs

69

TH2 effects:

B cell class switching and eosinophil recruitment
- IgE/IgG (from IL 4)
- IgA/eosinophils (from IL5)

70

CD40L on ______

Helper T cells

71

CD40 on ______

APCs (B cells)

72

Type III Hypersensitivity

antigen + soluble IgG + complement → complex → damage to tissue

73

MHC II

- extracellular antigen presentation
- loaded with antigen within an acidified endosome

74

ANCA

Anti- Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody

75

Immediate Hypersensitivity w/ Blood Transfusion

Seen w/ Selective IgA deficiency
(patients often have IgG antibodies against IgA)

76

Individuals with HLA haplotypes that cannot bind certain polypeptide fragments:

will be unable to mount a T-cell dependent (IgG, IgA) immune response against these antigens
- unable to present an antigen if it cannot recognize it

77

Posterior calf and dorsolateral foot Drains to: _________ lymph nodes

Popliteal

78

Below pectinate line, and skin below umbilicus (except popliteal area) Drain to: _______ lymph nodes

Superficial Inguinal

79

Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, and Uterus Drain to: ________ lymph nodes

Para-aortic

80

Edema at a site of injury or inflammation

Endothelial tight junctions permeability is increased in response to injury and inflammation, allowing migration of white blood cells to site

81

C3 Deficiency

SLE

82

IL8

Chemotactic factor for neutrophils

83

Type III Hypersensitivity (5)

SLE
Polyarteritis nodosa
PSGN
Arthus Reaction
Serum Sickness

84

Type IV Hypersensitivity (5)

MS
Guillain Barre
PPD
Graft vs Host
Contact Dermatitis

85

Hyper IgE

AD
Deficiency of TH17 due to STAT3 mutation --> impair neutrophil recruitment
coarse facies, noninflamed staph abcesses, primary teeth rentention, eczema

86

SCID: X linked Mutation vs Auto Recessive Mutation

X linked: IL2R gamma chain problem (MC)
Auto recessive: Adenosine deaminase