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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (86)
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1

Mutations in Fas

Decrease extrinsic apoptosis pathway → decreased apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes → autoimmune processes

2

BRCA

- Tumor suppressor (2 hit) DNA repair gene
- Repairs double stranded DNA breaks
- AD inheritance
- Risk of breast and ovarian cancer

3

ERBB/HER2

- Protooncogene (1 hit) Tyrosine kinase receptor
- Acquired (not inherited)

4

MPO (myeloperoxidase)

- In neutrophil granules catalyzes intracellular killing by producing bleach (HOCl) from H2O2 and chlorine
- Gives sputum greenish color

5

Acute Graft Rejection

Dense interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate

6

Chronic Graft Rejection

Scant inflammatory cells + interstitial fibrosis

7

IL-2 exclusively produced by:

Antigen-stimulated lymphocytes

8

Tumor Suppressors: 2 Hit Hypothesis

If inherited syndrome, one hit is genetic, 2nd hit is sporadic

9

Invariant Chain

During antigen processing in macrophages, invariant chain of the MHC II is removed and replaced by an external proteins in acidified endosomes

10

Ataxia Telengectasia

DNA more susceptible to breaks from ionizing radiation

11

Thymus derived from

3rd Pharyngeal Pouch

12

PSGN: Hypersensitivity Type ___

Type 3 Hypersensitivity: immuno complexes deposit as humps on EM

13

Serum Sickness: Hypersensitivity Type ____

Type 3 hypersensitivity
- characterized by vasculitis, from a reaction to nonhuman proteins (eg. Infliximab)

14

IgG4

- membranous nephropathy
- Reidel thyroiditis
- autoimmune pancreatitis

15

X-linker Agammaglobulinemia

(Bruton): mutation in tyrosine kinase that blocks B-cell maturation → immunodeficiency

16

IFN- a and IFN-b

- stimulates neighboring cells to synthesize antiviral proteins that degrade intracellular mRNA (host and viral) and impair protein synthesis

17

Chediak Higashi

failure of phagosome-lysosome fusion → recurrent infection
- Albinism, neurological defects, and infections

18

Neutrophilia may occur w/:

Glucocorticoid use
- due to “demargination” of leukocytes previously attached to wall

19

IL-2 Transcription inhibitor/Inhibit calcineurin

Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus

20

Inhibits signaling/Inhibits MTOR

Sirolimus

21

Binds FKBP

Sirolimus and Tacrolimus

22

CGD

Dx: DHR (preferred) or NBT
- Recurrent infections of catalase + enzymes (because defect in NADPH oxidase)
- Candida, Staph, Klebsiella, Burkholderia

23

p-ANCA/MPO

Churg Strauss and Microscopic polyangiitis
- Churg: allergy, and granulomatous, adult onset asthma, eosinophilia, and neuropathy
- Polyangitis: use cyclophosphamide (also for polyarteritis)

24

c-ANCA/PR3

Wegeners: upper respiratory and granulomatous, use cyclophosphamide

25

Tight binding of neutrophils and crawling via:

ICAM (to LFA, MAC1) or VCAM (to VLA)

26

Transmigration via:

PECAM (aka CD31)

27

Margination and Rolling via:

E and P selectins (on endothelium) to sialyly lewis on leukocytes

28

DiGeorge: Abnormal Development of _______

3rd and 4th Pharyngeal Pouches

29

HyperIgM

defective CD40L on Th cell → no isotype switching so low IgG, IgE, and IgA (high IgM)

30

Hypersensitivity: Immediate, IgE, eosinophilia

Type I