Behaviour Modification - Part B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Behaviour Modification - Part B Deck (23)
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1
Q

What is operant conditioning?

A

A process whereby a particular class of response is shown to be more frequent as a function of the consequences it produces.

2
Q

What did Skinner call behaviours that are elicited by specific stimuli?

A

respondents

3
Q

What are the effects of consequence?

A

Positive punishment
Negative punishment
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement

4
Q

What is behaviour influenced by? How can we influence the rate of occurrence of such behaviours?

A

The consequences it produces
- we can influence the rate of occurrence of such behaviours by manipulating such consequences
- works as long as orderly changes occur as we vary the consequences of behaviour

5
Q

What is the paradigm for operant conditioning?

A

Antecedent - cue to the animal
Behaviour
Consequence - feedback given to the animal

6
Q

What is shaping behaviour?

A

Using instrumental (operant) learning, you can string together responses in order to teach an animal to do more complex behaviours

7
Q

What do reinforces always do to the frequency of behaviour? What do punishers do?

A

Reinforcers always increase the frequency of behaviour

Punishers always decrease the frequency of behaviour

8
Q

What is a bridging stimulus?

A

Used in positive reinforcement to signal reinforcement is coming because there is often a delay between the response and delivery of the reinforcement.
- anticipatory; using a trace temporal paradigm

9
Q

What happens to the bridging stimulus through repeated pairings?

A

Takes on the properties of the reinforcing treat by virtue of classical conditioning (then referred to as a secondary reinforcer)

10
Q

What are positive reinforcers?

A

Reinforcers that produce an increase in the frequency of a desired behaviour
ex. food for bar pressing

11
Q

What are negative reinforcers?

A

Reinforces that strengthen a behaviour by removing what is aversive. Reinforcers that are negative are aversive stimuli which, when removed, increase the probability of the response.
-ex. A rat’s bar press is reinforced because it turns off an electric shock

12
Q

What is punishment?

A

Punishment is the presentation of an aversive stimulus or removal of a pleasurable stimulus after an undesirable behaviour has occurred. It tends to stop or reduce the likelihood of the behaviour occurring in the future.

13
Q

Why did Skinner say that the effects of punishment are temporary?

A

He found that any behaviour that was suppressed during punishment was “saved up”, only to reappear once punishment ended.

Skinner felt that punishers do not directly affect behaviour in the way reinforcers do.

14
Q

What is interactive punishment?

A

The animal associates the unpleasant stimulus with the person.
- not recommended clinically for resolving problem behaviour
- animal behaves differently when person is present vs not present
- may evoke aggression

15
Q

What is remote punishment?

A

The connection between the punishing stimulus and the person responsible for the punishment is removed.

16
Q

What is social punishment?

A

Negative punishment!
- principle of removing a rewarding stimulus (eg. removing or terminating social interaction)

17
Q

What can scheduling of reinforcers produce aka why are they important?

A

Can produce extremely reliable patterns of behaviour that can be maintained as long as desired

18
Q

What do the simplest of schedules provide reinforcement based on?

A

Either on the passage of time (interval) or on the completion of a response (ratio) requirement

19
Q

What is a fixed interval schedule?

A

An FI schedule reinforces the 1st response that occurs after a set period of TIME has passed.
- ex. think of pay day; as the time nears the frequency (or buying) increases, then after the reinforcement there is a decrease for awhile

20
Q

What is a variable interval schedule?

A

Provides reinforcement for the 1st response occurring after some average period of time.
ex. on a VI 1 min schedule, reinforcement may come at 10 sec, then 5 min, then 30 sec (avg = 1 min)

Subjects on such schedules respond at moderate and fairly constant rates, even when the frequency of reinforcement varies quite widely

21
Q

What is a fixed ratio schedule?

A

Requires that a given # of responses be made before reinforcement is delivered.
- ex. an FR 20 schedule requires 20 responses for each reinforcement

Slightly higher maintained response rate than interval but when it is fixed you still get some scalloping.

22
Q

What is a variable ratio schedule?

A

Reinforcement is delivered after a varying # of responses, depending on the average requirement of the schedule.
ex. VR 25 requires an average of 25 responses per reinforcement; some with 2, then 100

Animals on VR schedules respond at fairly high constant rates.

23
Q

At what point is a behaviour considered ‘established’?

A

After a conditioned operant response has been learned, it is generally maintained as long as reinforcement is at least occasionally presented (otherwise, extinction occurs (active process) which is different from forgetting with is a passive process).

Behaviours are best maintained by reinforcement on a variable (usually VR) schedule.